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As you become acquainted with this website, it probably will come as little surprise for you to hear me say that I practically idolize Sir Isaac Newton (born in 1642 and died in 1727) and Albert Einstein (born in 1879 and died in 1955). Perhaps more than any other person, these two individuals made some of the most significant contributions to human understanding of how the physical Universe works.

Watch (Newton's Dark Secrets)

Watch (Einstein's Big Idea)

Given the enormity of their contributions to human knowledge, I think it is fair to say that Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein truly were "Too Legit To Quit" (M.C. Hammer).

M.C. Hammer - "2 Legit 2 Quit"

Watch (Michael Jackson, Ghosts)

Watch (Captain EO Full Feature Starring: Michael Jackson)

At one point in human history and long before the arrival of Sir Isaac Newton, it was not very well understood precisely how the Universe works. To be sure, to this day as of 2014, humans still are grappling to gain a more comprehensive or unified understanding of how the Universe works. At one point in human history, many humans believed that the Earth was flat. Because they could not feel it spinning, many humans did not realize that the Earth was rotating on its axis. It turns out that the rotating Earth explains the rising of the Sun in the East and the setting of the Sun in the West. The Earth rotates on its axis in a counterclockwise motion. Depending on where you are located, as the Earth spins counterclockwise and turns in the direction of the Sun, daylight arrives and it gives the illusion of a rising Sun in the East. As the Earth continues to rotate counterclockwise and as it begins to turn away from the Sun, it gives the illusion of the Sun moving across the sky. As the Earth continues spinning in a counterclockwise motion with its back to the Sun, it gives the illusion of the Sun setting in the West. As the Earth continues to spin in a counterclockwise motion completely away from the Sun, then nightfall arrives. It takes the Earth 24 hours to make a complete 360-degree revolution, and the process of day and night begins all over again.

Many humans also believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe. For millennia, many humans believed that the Universe (or the heavens) was no larger than the stars that they observed in the night sky. Against the background of the stars in the sky, in early human history, many humans believed that all of the stars in the night sky revolved around Earth. To this day as of 2014, it is quite possible that perhaps up to one-half of the Earth's 7,000,000,000 (billion) human inhabitants believe that humans are the direct descendants of Adam and Eve, which is perfectly okay and is not meant as any type of criticism. Everybody is free to believe whatever he or she chooses to believe; the key to progress is to strive to make informed decisions. There is little doubt about it: Those humans who believe that present-day human beings evolved from an ape-like ancestor are definitely of the minority opinion on Earth.

Nowadays, at the dawn of the 21st century, humans have unraveled a great many cosmic secrets. Now that the scientific forebears of humans have developed a body of scientific knowledge to explain many of Universe's secrets and mysteries, it is a fairly simple thing for contemporary humans to compute and comprehend the significance of their ancestors's scientific discoveries. Mathematics (math) is the principal tool used by scientists to unravel and explain various cosmic secrets. Math is augmented by rigorous scientific research.



What exactly are some of these cosmic secrets? A few of these cosmic secrets are revealed below. They are summarized with math formulas or equations. Math, for instance, is applied to determine planetary surface areas, planetary volumes, planetary masses, planetary orbits, and planetary revolutions.

The major heavenly bodies in the Solar System are shaped similar to a sphere, namely, the Sun, planets, and their moon(s). Using sphere-related formulas in conjunction with known quantities or variables, it is possible to make various computations about the planets, moons, comets, Sun, and so forth. Take the perimeter formula, for instance. A perimeter is the measurement of the length around an object. The object, for instance, could be shaped like a circle, square, rectangle, or triangle.

The formula for the perimeter or circumference of a circle is given as:
C = π(d) or 2π(r)

The Earth conforms to the shape of a sphere and is circular. According to the Earth Fact Sheet, the equatorial radius of Earth is 6378.1 kilometers (or 3,963.2 miles). A generally accepted value of π or pi (that is, a circle's circumference divided by its diameter) is approximately 3.14159265. The value of pi is a natural property of all circles regardless of a circle's size. Greek mathematician named Archimedes is credited with being the first human to formally document this natural property of circles. Archimedes was born in 287 B.C., or 287 years Before Christ arrived on Earth (that is, 287 years Before Christ + 2013 years After Christ's Death/Resurrection = 2,300 years ago as of 2013).

Cosmic Secret 1: Determining the Earth's Circumference

Using the perimeter formula for circles, the circumference of Earth becomes:

Earth's circumference

By substituting the values for the variables, π and r into the above circumference formula, the circumference of Earth becomes 40,075 kilometers (or 24,901 miles in USA measurement units). Therefore, the Earth must travel or spin on its axis for 40,075 kilometers to make one complete 360-degree revolution. After rounding from a sidereal day (that is, 23 hours 56 minutes 4.09 seconds) to a 24-hour day, division is used to determine that the Earth revolves on its axis at a speed of 1,670 kilometers per hour (that is, 40,075/24), or it is the same thing as saying the Earth spins at 28 kilometers per minute! Using USA measurement units, the Earth turns or spins on its axis at a speed of 1,057 miles per hour, or 17 miles per minute! Humans do not feel the Earth spinning because the Earth is so massive relative to the size of humans. Humans can sense the Earth spinning by looking at the movements of the clouds in the sky.

To summarize, the speed of the Earth's revolution on its axis was computed as follows:

The USA equivalent for the speed of Earth's revolution on its axis was computed as follows:

Watch (Circumference of a Circle - - Math Help)

While the Earth's circumference was a secret or mystery to early humans, with human advancements in science over the millennia, the Earth's circumference is not a secret anymore.

Cosmic Secret 2: Determining the Earth's Surface Area

The surface area of Earth is akin to seeing the entire planet as if you were riding aboard the International Space Station. The following formula is used to compute the surface area of a sphere:
SA = 4π(r)2

Using the surface area formula for spheres, the surface area of Earth becomes:

Earth's surface area

After substituting the value of the equatorial radius of the Earth into the surface area formula, then the surface area of the Earth becomes 511,201,967 (million) square kilometers or 197,376,183 (million) square miles. In reality, Earth is not shaped perfectly like a sphere. Therefore, the sphere formula does not give a precise measurement of the Earth's surface area, but it does give a very good approximation. Notice that to convert square kilometers to square miles, then multiply the square kilometers by 0.3861. It should be noted that scientists have determined water covers roughly 70% of the Earth's surface, and land covers roughly 30% of the Earth's surface.

Watch (Surface Area - - Math Help)

Cosmic Secret 3: Determining the Earth's Volume

Next, consider the volume of Earth. The following formula is used to compute the volume of a sphere.
V = (4/3)π(r)3

After substituting the value of the equatorial radius of Earth into the volume formula, Earth's volume becomes:

Earth's volume

The volume of Earth becomes 1,086,832,410,696 (trillion) cubic kilometers or 260,744,961,524 (billion) cubic miles. It should be noted that the measurement of volume is different from the measurement of mass. The measurement of volume represents how much space is available to be occupied. The measurement of mass represents how much matter is actually occupying that available space. Consider, for instance, a balloon filled with air and a balloon filled with water. Both balloons might be similar in sizes; therefore, they would have roughly the same volumes. Because the amount of matter constituting the balloon filled with air differs from the amount of matter constituting the ballon filled with water, the two balloons would not share similar masses. Mass is more related to weight than it is to volume.

Watch (Volume of a Sphere)

Cosmic Secret 4: Determining the Earth's Mass

One of Sir Isaac Newton's most significant achievements was his law of universal gravitation. The law of universal gravitation states that every object throughout the Universe is attracted to every other object. The force of attraction between objects is directed along the line of centers of those objects. The strength or magnitude of the attraction between those objects is proportional to the product of their masses and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation can be expressed as follows:

Sir Isaac Newton's Law of universal gravitation


The really neat thing about Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation is that all kinds of formulas can be derived from it. One derived formula is the formula to determine the mass of an object. For instance, the mass of Earth can be computed by using the following derived gravitational formula:

formula for mass

Scientists have computed the mass of the Earth to be 5.9736*1024 kilograms (that is, 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 septillion kilograms, or about 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000 (5.9736) sextillion metric tons, which comes to 6,584,766,850,000,000,000,000 (6.585) sextillion short tons in USA measurement units. Using Sir Isaac Newton's math formulation of gravity, the mass of Earth is derived as follows:

Earth's mass


It should be noted that 9.80665 meters per second, per second is used as the official value for variable, g, at or near the Earth's surface. Earth's gravitational acceleration rate of 9.80665 meters per second, per second has been adopted by all global measurement bodies such as the USA's Department of Commerce and its National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

After substituting the values for the Earth's variables into the mass equation, Earth's mass becomes 5,977,215,328,685,740,000,000,000 septillion kilograms. The computed 5,977,215,328,685,740,000,000,000 (5.9772) septillion kilograms is not significantly different from the generally accepted Earth mass of 5.9736 septillion kilograms.

Based on Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation, it also should be noted that gravity's acceleration value at or near the Earth's surface (9.80665 m/s2) can be derived by using the following formula:

formula for acceleration

Using the USA's measurement system, the 9.80665 meters per second, per second translate into 32.1740486 feet per second, per second; 115,826.57496000 feet per hour; or, 21.9368513 miles per hour for gravity's acceleration rate at or near the Earth's surface.

acceleration due to Earth's gravity


Watch (How to Weigh the Earth)

Cosmic Secret 5: Determining the Earth's Orbit of the Sun

The next formula is taken from Johannes Kepler's third law of planetary motion. Johannes Kepler's third law of planetary motion states that, for planets orbiting the Sun, the square of the time that it takes a planet to orbit the Sun is equal to the cube of its distance from the Sun. To obtain a common unit of measurement relative to Earth years, when computing orbital periods, it is useful to convert the average distance of the planets from the Sun from kilometers or miles to astronomical units. An astronomical unit has been defined as being a distance of approximately 149,597,870.70 kilometers from the Sun to Earth (or 92,955,807 miles using USA measurement units).

Scientists, among other computations, already have computed the average distances of planets to the Sun. The following table illustrates how astronomical units are computed (relative to Earth) by using their average kilometers or miles from the Sun. In essence, divide the average number of kilometers a planet is from the Sun by 149,597,870.70 to obtain its equivalent astronomical units relative to Earth (or, if using USA measurement units, divide the number of miles a planet is from the Sun by 92,955,807 to obtain its equivalent astronomical units relative to Earth).

Deriving Planetary Astronomical Units
Planet Average Distance to the Sun (Kilometers) Equivalent Average Miles to the Sun (0.621371192 Conversion Factor) Equivalent Astronomical Unit(s) Relative to Earth
Mercury 57,900,000 35,977,392.0168000 0.387037594
Venus 108,200,000 67,232,362.9744000 0.723272327
Earth 149,597,871 92,955,807.2375209 1.000000000
Mars 227,900,000 141,610,494.6568000 1.523417405
Jupiter 778,600,000 483,799,610.0912000 5.204619533
Saturn 1,433,500,000 890,735,603.7320000 9.582355640
Uranus 2,872,500,000 1,784,888,749.0200000 19.201476509
Neptune 4,495,100,000 2,793,125,645.1592000 30.047887573
Pluto 5,870,000,000 3,647,448,897.0400000 39.238526408
Planetary Fact Sheet - Metric

See Also:
NASA's Solar System Exploration - The Planets: Orbits and Physical Characteristics

It is well known that it takes Earth a year to orbit the Sun. As a result, Neptune will be used to illustrate this cosmic secret. The number of years it takes for Neptune to orbit the Sun relative to someone watching on Earth is computed as follows:

Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion


Watch (Solar System Dynamics: Orbits and Kepler's Laws)

Based on its average distance from the Sun, Johannes Kepler's formula reveals that it takes Neptune 165 years to make a 360-degree orbit the Sun.

Why do the planets conform to orbits around the Sun instead of crashing into the Sun by the pull or force of the Sun's gravity? Take the Moon's orbit around the Earth, for instance. Without the presence of the Earth and the Sun's gravity, and all other things being equal, the Moon would drift into deep space along the path of a straight line. Due to the spherical, spinning, and more massive Earth, the Earth turns away from the Moon simultaneously as the Moon falls towards the Earth due to gravity. The spherical and spinning Earth turns away from the falling Moon by just enough to cause the Moon permanently to orbit the Earth instead of crashing into Earth. For instance, each time the Moon falls, say, an inch, towards the Earth due to the stronger force of Earth's gravity, the Earth turns away from Moon by a comparable amount, say, an inch. These simultaneous actions cause the Moon to never reach Earth.

An example of the Sun-planets gravitation dynamic is akin to a person exercising on a treadmill. The person on the treadmill is moving in a forward walking or running motion, but the reverse force of the treadmill's wheel keeps that person stationary in the same spot on the treadmill. While exercising, the person never runs off and leaves the treadmill behind. Similarly, the planets could be viewed as the exercising person on the treadmill moving in a forward motion, and the Sun's gravitational pull on the planets could be viewed as the reverse wheel of treadmill that is keeping the planets in a stationary orbit albeit the planets are perpetually trying to move in a forward (or straight-line escaping) motion to race away from the Sun and wander into deep space.

Watch (Our World: Gravity in Space)

The following video provides a more technical explanation of how and why satellites and planets conform to orbits.

Watch [Calculations for Earth's Geosynchronous (aka Geostationary) Orbit: Phy]

Cosmic Secret 6: Determining the Earth's Escape Velocity

Recall when computing the mass of Earth above, it was noted that, at or near the Earth's surface, gravity accelerates towards Earth's center at 9.80665 meters per second squared (which alternately is represented by variable g and variable a depending on the context). The 9.80665 acceleration rate translated into 32.1740486 feet per second or 21.9368513 miles per hour (that is, 32.1740486 feet * 60 seconds = 1,930.442916 feet in a minute; and 1,930.442916 feet * 60 minutes = 115,826.57496 feet per hour, and 115,826.57496 feet / 5,280 feet in a mile = 21.9368513 miles per hour). According to the escape velocity formula, an object on Earth needs to accelerate to a speed of 40,265 kilometers per hour (or 25,019 miles per hour) to overcome and completely escape the influence of Earth's gravity. Sir Isaac Newton showed humans that the Earth is no longer the limit. If humans know how to accelerate to 25,019 miles per hour, and if the technology exists, then humans are free to roam the Solar System. With a bit more acceleration, then humans are free to leave the Solar System and explore the Universe live, up close, and in person.

There are several ways to compute the Earth's escape velocity. One way to compute the escape velocity of Earth is by using the following derived gravitational formula:

Escape Velocity Formula


After plugging the values for the escape-velocity variables, g and r, into the escape-velocity formula, the solution for the Earth's escape velocity becomes 11,184.61 meters per second squared. Using the metric system, the 11,184.61 meters per second, per second translate into an escape velocity from Earth of 40,264.6101 kilometers per hour (that is, 11,184.61 meters * 60 seconds = 671,076.6 meters in a minute; and 671,076.6 meters * 60 minutes = 40,264,596 meters per hour; and 40,264,596 meters / 1,000 meters in a kilometer = 40,264.6 kilometers per hour). Using the USA's measurement system, the 11,184.61 meters per second, per second (or 36,694.9147 feet per second, per second) translate into an escape velocity from Earth of 6.94979689 miles per second or 25,019.2688 miles per hour (that is, 36,694.9147 feet * 60 seconds = 2,201,694.882 feet in a minute; and 2,201,694.882 feet * 60 minutes = 132,101,692.92 feet per hour, and 132,101,692.92 feet / 5,280 feet in a mile = 25,019.26 miles per hour).

Earth's Escape Velocity
Watch (Escape Velocity 2)

Cosmic Secret 7: Energy and Matter Are One

One of the most famous formulas in the world is E=mc2. This famous formula by Albert Einstein establishes that matter and energy are interchangeable. It further establishes that a small amount of matter can generate an enormous amount of energy. Conversely, it establishes that an enormous amount of energy is required to create a small amount of matter. This famous formula can be summarized as follows:



Admittedly, Albert Einstein was among those who suggested that President Harry Truman might wish to consider utilizing E=mc2 to develop the world's first nuclear bomb. At the time, when World War II was raging, it was feared that Adolf Hitler was engaged in the development of a nuclear bomb. At the time, the Allies genuinely were concerned that if Adolf Hitler succeeded in developing the world's first nuclear bomb, then Adolf Hitler also might succeed in his quest to conquer the world. The irony is this: Although Adolf Hitler failed to develop a nuclear bomb, with Earth now awash in nuclear bombs as of 2014, the world's worst fears about the outcome of Adolf Hitler possessing a nuclear bomb have now reached nightmarish proportions. With Earth now awash in nuclear bombs, could it be that the defeat of Adolf Hitler's war machine (and the defeat of the Axis powers) only bought humans a (say, a century's) delay in their eventual destruction of the world? Could it be that the world's nuclear powers will end up unleashing those nuclear bombs on the world anyway in some future global conflict? Wouldn't it be ironic if the Allies sought to prevent Adolf Hitler from conquering the world with a nuclear bomb only for the Allies to be the countries that ended destroying the world with nuclear bombs years after Adolf Hitler's demise? After development of the nuclear bomb, Albert Einstein became a leading proponent of nuclear non-proliferation on Earth.

Watch (Einstein's Relativity: The Famous Equation E=mc2)

Cosmic Secret 8: Time Dilation

In his theory of relativity, Albert Einstein demonstrated that time is relative. He showed that time slows down as an object with mass approaches the speed of light. This slowing-of-time phenomenon is known as time dilation. Scientists have devised ways to compute the effects of time dilation. The following formula can be used to compute the effect of time dilation:

Formula for relativistic adjustment factor


Time dilation at 99% the speed of light

To illustrate the significance of the time dilation cosmic secret, assume that two astronauts are aboard an intergalactic spaceship. They are traveling at 99% the speed of light (as the above example assumes). At 99% the speed of light (or 184,419.57303 miles per second), the time dilation formula indicates that the aging process will slow down for the astronauts by a relativistic factor of 7.0888. The relativistic factor of 7.0888 can be interpreted to mean this: When travel is conducted at 99% the speed of light, for each year the spaceship has been traveling, an astronaut aboard the spaceship will feel normal but will age as if he or she has been traveling for 0.1411 year. After, say, 60 years of space travel, a person on Earth will have aged by an additional 60 years whereas the astronaut traveling at 99% the speed of light only will have aged by an additional 8.466 years (that is, 0.1411 * 60 in the above example of 99% speed-of-light travel).

The corresponding unit factor for 7.0888 was obtained as follows:

Time dilation at 99% the speed of light
Watch (Spacetime and the Twins Paradox)


Sir Isaac Newton's scientific accomplishments were unmistakable, unrivaled, and unparalleled. Sight should not be lost of the fact that Sir Isaac Newton was assisted by the scientific legacy of his predecessors such as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Tycho Brahe (and so, too, was Albert Einstein assisted by the scientific work of his predecessors). Sir Isaac Newton singlehandedly unraveled the secret of how the physical Universe works. In the process, Sir Isaac Newton deeply influenced the way many humans began to view the Universe and their place in it. The scientific tradition of unlocking Nature's secrets continues to this day as of 2014.

JPL Small-Body Database Browser

With a higher degree of precision, Albert Einstein later would reformulate Sir Isaac Newton's mathematical model of how the physical Universe works. It turns out, however, that the body of knowledge known as Newtonian physics has served humans quite well at the macroscopic or planetary level. Not only does Sir Isaac Newton's mathematical constructs provide accurate representations of planetary and galactic phenomena such as force, mass, acceleration, and gravity but also Sir Isaac Newton's gravitational physics is a bit more intuitive to comprehend than Albert Einstein's more abstract space-time physics. If nothing else, however, Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, through their scientific legacies, have caused humans to ponder more deeply the Universe in which they live.

Space School - Earth

Watch (International Year of Astronomy 2009 in Canada)


This page has been devoted to viewing several cosmic secrets at the macroscopic level of planets and galaxies and, mainly, in conjunction with the force of gravity. Moving beyond Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, scientists also very busily are unraveling cosmic secrets at the microscopic level of atoms. This microscopic level of scientific discovery is being performed in conjunction with other work being done on the other known forces of Nature, namely, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. A lot of this microscopic work is taking place in the scientific field of study known as quantum mechanics.

The unraveling of these cosmic secrets has caused humans to revisit several philosophical questions: Were these forces of Nature set in motion by God (that is, the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force), or were they set in motion by something else unrelated to the Divine such as the scientific Big Bang? Is Earth the only heavenly body in the Universe to harbor life? Do intelligent space aliens exist? At this point in time, nobody on Earth really knows the answer to these philosophical questions, that is, not with 100% certainty.

Although humans do not know the answers to the above-mentioned philosophical questions with 100% certainty, they have relied on the probability concept to venture a guess at some answers. Take questions about the existence of intelligent space aliens, for instance. According to the famous Drake Equation, it is possible or probable that up to 10,000 heavenly bodies in the Milky Way galaxy might harbor an intelligent life form. It takes little imagination to surmise that if there are at least 100,000,000,000 (billion) galaxies throughout the Universe, and if each of those 100 billion galaxies also hosted 10,000 heavenly bodies with an intelligent life form on them, then it becomes possible or probable that that there could be as many as 1,000,000,000,000,000 (quadrillion) heavenly bodies with an intelligent life form on them throughout the Universe. Based on these Drake Equation odds, it becomes less likely that humans are the only intelligent life form to exist in the Universe. If the Drake Equation is reasonably accurate, then it becomes reasonable to assume that intelligent life forms do exist somewhere else in the Universe. Assume, for instance, that other intelligent life forms do exist elsewhere in the Universe. Another completely separate matter is the odds of those intelligent life forms actually travelling across interstellar or intergalactic space to reach Earth.

Watch (What Is the Probability of Getting Heads Four Times?: Math Tutorials)

Where do I stand? What are my thoughts about these kinds of philosophical questions? If I were a betting person, based on what I have read and learned, then I would be more inclined to bet my money on the scientific Big Bang theory and on the scientific theory of evolution. Many humans cannot conceive—and refuse to accept—the notion that the observable Universe could have arisen from nothing except primordial energy. However, on a more humanly scale, humans now know that the procreation of life on Earth often begins with a microscopic sperm uniting with a microscopic egg. In other words, if a fully grown human can develop from nothing more than an egg and a sperm, then is it also not possible for the observable Universe, in all its vastness, to have arisen from an initial Big Bang?

Of course, you should not take my words or my opinion as being the absolute truth about reality. I do not profess to be savant, and I do not purport to be the holder of any absolute truths. I do not know anymore about the origins of origins than the next person on Earth. For me, it reduces to a matter of the perspectives and approaches to knowledge and wisdom of some being more compelling than the perspectives and approaches of others. For me, the scientific educational method offers a systematic, rigorous, robust, testable, reproducible, and well-documented framework when it comes to deciphering and discerning the probable and improbable workings of Nature.

For instance, there are some humans who claim that mermaids live at the bottom of the oceans and seas, and there are other humans who believe these claims to be true about the existence of mermaids on Earth. Are these claim about the existence of mermaids probable or improbable? The point is this: Anybody can make a claim about the workings of Nature and reality, but are these claims credible? Science very carefully and very meticulously seeks to discern and distinguish probable explanations of Nature and reality from outright ridiculous, nonsensical, and outrageous claims about the workings of Nature and reality.

On a personal level, for me, Biblical notions such as humans rising from the dead on Judgment Day, or the notion of the existience of a Supernatural entity known as Satan or the Devil presiding over this place known as Hell, seem improbable and wholly fictitious. According to most Christian beliefs, on Judgment Day, the good humans will be separated from the bad humans. The good humans will be sent to a place called Heaven to live an opulent existence forever. The bad humans will be sent to a place called Hell to live a tormented existence forever. Scientists have estimated that, over the course of the Earth's history and dating back to about 50,000 years ago when wise humans might have begun to appear on Earth, upwards to as many as 100 billion humans may have lived on Earth including the 7 billion humans alive right now (as of 2014). It strikes me as simply too incredulous and a bit preposterous to think that God would be raising 100 billion humans (and counting) from the dead for judgment. That's a lot of people to raise from the dead and judge, and the vast majority of those 100 billion humans may have never heard of Adam, Eve, Jesus Christ, or God. Although you may have lived an honorable life during your tenure on Earth, is it fair for you to be condemned to spend eternity burning in Hell with Satan simply because you did not profess a belief in a God that you may not have known existed? Yet, many Christians believe that those who have not profess a belief in God automatically will be condemned to a life of eternal damnation in Hell with Satan. And, for those who are fortunate enough to reach Biblical Heaven, will they get to decide their age at the time of entrance? Say, you died at the age of 80 years old or 6 months old. Can you choose to enter Heaven looking as though you were 25 years old? Will everybody in Biblical Heaven be the same age?

Much like this place known as Biblical Heaven and the concept of an afterlife, I think that Satan is a nothing more than a fictional character who was invented many years ago by humans. As I stated on the "4th Dimension" page of this website, the pharoahs of ancient Egypt made elaborate burial preparations because they thought that they would be entering into the afterlife when they died. Contemporary humans now know that the pharoahs have not gone anyplace; their bodies are still preserved right here on Earth. Why should the outcome of death be any different for contemporary humans who look forward to an afterlife than it was for the pharoahs who held great faith in the the promise of immediately journeying to an afterlife?

The primary role of Satan (or the prospect of going to Biblical Hell), it seems, is to further incentivize humans to walk the straight, narrow, and righteous path in life. If humans choose not to walk the straight, narrow, and righteous path in life—or if humans run too far afoul of the rule of law—then there's always prison as a substitute for them going to Biblical Hell.

You will never hear me say that there exists no God. Nobody on Earth really knows with absolute, 100% certainty whether or nor some sort of God exists somewhere out there in the vast Universe. I will say, however, that I do not believe that Satan or Hell exists. I think that the only Satan to exist is the evil and destructive tendencies that reside in the hearts of humans. You will, however, here me say that humans should take control of their destinies instead of sitting around and waiting for God to make things better on Earth. Humans must become proactive in seizing the future and living constructively.

If you believe that the Universe was created by, and is governed by, God (the Spiritual, Supernatural, or Divine), then your viewpoint is an equally plausible one. The decision about what to believe in life is yours to make. It really does not matter whether the origins of origins are attributable to certain scientific theories, Allah (Islam), God (Judaism and Christianity), Brahman (Hinduism), Ahura Mazda (Zoroastrianism), or some other supernatural force. What matters is that the peoples of Earth learn to live in peace. What matters is that the peoples of the Earth treat one another with courtesy and respect as a routine part of daily living. What matters is that the peoples of the Earth remain civilized and humane as a routine part of daily living regardless of beliefs without recourse to violence and murder against those with whom they disagree. What matters is getting a good education and finding your niche in the broader civil society. What matters is becoming a productive and self-supporting member of civil society. What matters is being a responsible and law-abiding member of civil society. What matters is enjoying life on Earth. What matters is that the human species survives and thrives for millions and even billions of years into the future.

I am a proponent of freedom of religious worship and religious tolerance. However, in my lifetime, it seems to me that, for the most part, all that the organized religions of the world have succeeded in doing is keeping humans apart and turning humans against one another. All of this religious competition, confusion, anger, bickering, fighting, and killing on Earth is downright ridiculous; it has to stop if the human species is to survive and not succumb to extinction.

The following videos present a unified scientific framework. They show how scientists go about the task of tackling the great philosophical questions in life.

Watch (The Universe S01 E14 - Beyond the Big )

Watch (Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell)

Watch (First Life with David Attenborough Part 12 Discovery Channel)

David Attenborough's First Life from Atlantic Productions on Vimeo.

Watch (Launchpad: Astrobiology)


What will the future be like for humankind? Will it be like Heaven (life, prosperity, and peace), or will it be like Hell (death, self-destruction, and extinction)? One thing is certain, and it is this: As of 2014, Earth is the only known heavenly body in the Universe to harbor life. In the eyes of cosmic history, the human life span is akin to the blink of an eye. Humans must learn to cherish one another and to preserve their mother, the Earth.

Watch (Cosmos: Who Speaks for Earth?)

Cosmos - Carl Sagan - A Personal Voyage...

It has been said that math and music are the languages of the Universe. Having already delved into a tiny bit of math on this page, I think that it is fitting to conclude this page with a little bit of music. The musical selections below reflect hope for humanity. The hope is for humans to choose a future of Heaven on Earth for the living over a future of Hell. The time is come for humans to move beyond the past and to start preparing for 22nd century living and beyond. Rather than allowing itself to succumb to the tempation of participating in primitive, barbaric, cruel, brutal, and savage acts as daily ways of life (such as the Holocaust, slavery, ethnic cleansing, torture, oppression, robbery, pillage, rape, war, deception, stealing, teasing, bullying, prejudice, hatred, violence, bribery, fraud, corruption, extortion, gunplay, murder, and so forth), the entire human species across Earth must perpetually strive to elevate its conduct to the highest ethical plane.

Humans really do need to wake up, snap out, and break free of the blind spell that seems to be commanding them to go forth into the world and harm, hate, and kill one another. It is extremely difficult to build and foster bonds of trust and unity among humans when some humans insist on engaging in all kinds of primitive behaviors and counterproductive pursuits. How can you trust someone if you think the worst of your fellow human, that is, if you constantly think that your fellow human wants to harm, hate, or kill you?

I sincerely believe that humans have reached the stage in their development or have reached the stage in their evolution whereby they have the capacity to transform Earth into an oasis of beauty, peace, and prosperity. I sincerely believe that humans now stand at the threshold of transforming or morphing Earth into something wonderful and extra special. I keep reiterating to "Do Yourself A Favour " (Ocean Colour Scene) and to get it together. The reason for the reiterations is because I do not wish to see anyone getting left behind when the big metamorphosis occurs on Earth.

Drake - "Find Your Love"

Ledisi - "Higher Than This"

Irene Cara - "Flashdance...What a Feeling"

Linda Ronstadt featuring James Ingram - "Somewhere Out There"

Stevie Wonder - "Heaven Is 10 Zillion Light Years Away"

Stevie Wonder - "Saturn"

Maze featuring Frankie Beverly - "We Are One"

Although I have said it elsewhere on this website, I'll repeat it here one more time: Humans have a mighty good thing going here on Earth. Wise humans would not mess up this good thing. The good thing is called life. Humans are fortunate to have had the honor and the privilege of participating in this grandiose and miraculous thing known as life. I cannot think of anything more wondrous in life than the magic of procreation. Humans must learn to make the most of their relatively brief tenure on Earth. Against the background of an approximately 15-billion-year-old Universe, the typical human life span is less than 100 years.

Watch (Things to do Before You Die)



Intellectual Property Disclosures: All videos and songs (as well as many of the images) referenced or spotlighted throughout this website are the legal and intellectual properties of others. All content and opinions on this website ( are those of the author (Edward Bruessard) exclusively and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the contributors, creators, owners, and distributors of these referenced videos, songs, and images. The author holds no legal interest or financial stake in any of these referenced videos, songs, and images. The contributors, creators, owners, and distributors of these referenced videos, songs, and images played no role at all regarding the appearance of said videos, songs, and images throughout this website; they had no clue that this website would be spotlighting their works.

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