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Desolate worlds are beckoning. Desolate worlds await the arrival of humans. With the passage of time, some of these desolate worlds, suddenly, are not so barren of a human presence anymore. Three such not-so-desolate worlds are Antarctica, the Moon, and Mars. The ultimate goal of exploration is for humans to colonize these desolate worlds, or for humans to extract natural resources from these desolate worlds to help foster the survival and prosperity of the human species on Earth.


Watch (Destination Antarctica)

Above the Earth's surface, the final frontier of human exploration ends with Antarctica. The new frontier of human exploration beyond Earth began with the Moon. As more humans and more countries engage in space exploration, their efforts only stand to enhance the human stock of knowledge. China's recent (14-DEC-2013) unmanned expedition to the Moon can best be characterized as one small step for China, and another giant leap for humankind.
Watch (China's Moon Rover Footage Released)

Watch (How the Moon Evolved: Video Guided Tour)

Watch (Exploring the Solar System)


Our Solar System

Country Mission Count Operator Spacecraft Launch Date Mission Type
Europe 1 ESA SMART-1 9/27/2003 Orbiter
India 1 ISRO Moon Impact Probe 10/21/2008 Impactor
China 1 CNSA Chang'e 1 10/24/2007 Orbiter
China 2 CNSA Chang'e 2 10/1/2010 Orbiter
China 3 CNSA Chang'e 3 12/1/2013 Lander/Rover
Japan 1 ISAS Hagoromo 1/24/1990 Orbiter
Japan 2 JAXA Kaguya (SELENE) 9/14/2007 Orbiter
Japan 3 JAXA Okina (RSAT) 9/14/2007 Orbiter
Japan 4 JAXA Ouna (VRAD) 9/14/2007 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 1 OKB-1 Luna 2 (E-1A No.2) 9/12/1959 Impactor
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 2 NPO Lavochkin Luna 9 (E-6 No.13) 1/31/1966 Lander
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 3 NPO Lavochkin Luna 10 (E-6S No.206) 3/31/1966 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 4 NPO Lavochkin Luna 11 (E-6LF No.101) 8/21/1966 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 5 NPO Lavochkin Luna 12 (E-6LF No.102) 10/22/1966 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 6 NPO Lavochkin Luna 13 (E-6M No.205) 12/21/1966 Lander
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 7 NPO Lavochkin Luna 14 (E-6LS No.113) 2/6/1969 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 8 NPO Lavochkin Luna 16 (E-8-5 No.406) 9/12/1970 Sample return
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 9 NPO Lavochkin Luna 17 (E-8 No.203) 11/10/1970 Lander/Rover
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 10 NPO Lavochkin Luna 19 (E-8LS No.202) 9/28/1971 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 11 NPO Lavochkin Luna 20 (E-8-5 No.408) 2/14/1972 Sample return
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 12 NPO Lavochkin Luna 21 (E-8 No.204) 1/8/1973 Lander/Rover
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 13 NPO Lavochkin Luna 22 (E-8LS No.206) 5/29/1974 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 14 NPO Lavochkin Luna 24 (E-8-5M No.413) 8/9/1976 Sample return
United States 1 NASA Ranger 7 7/28/1964 Impactor
United States 2 NASA Ranger 8 2/17/1965 Impactor
United States 3 NASA Ranger 9 3/21/1965 Impactor
United States 4 NASA Surveyor 1 5/30/1966 Lander
United States 5 NASA Lunar Orbiter 2 11/6/1966 Orbiter
United States 6 NASA Lunar Orbiter 3 2/5/1967 Orbiter
United States 7 NASA Surveyor 3 4/17/1967 Lander
United States 8 NASA Lunar Orbiter 4 5/4/1967 Orbiter
United States 9 NASA Explorer 35 (AIMP-E) 7/19/1967 Orbiter
United States 10 NASA Lunar Orbiter 5 8/1/1967 Orbiter
United States 11 NASA Surveyor 5 9/8/1967 Lander
United States 12 NASA Surveyor 6 11/7/1967 Lander
United States 13 NASA Surveyor 7 1/7/1968 Lander
United States 14 NASA Apollo 8 12/21/1968 Manned Orbiter
United States 15 NASA Apollo 10 5/18/1969 Manned Orbiter
United States 16 NASA Apollo 11 7/16/1969 Manned Orbiter/Lander
United States 17 NASA Apollo 12 11/14/1969 Manned Orbiter/Lander
United States 18 NASA Apollo 14 1/31/1971 Manned Orbiter/Lander
United States 19 NASA Apollo 15 7/26/1971 Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover
United States 20 NASA PFS-1 7/26/1971 Orbiter
United States 21 NASA Apollo 16 4/16/1972 Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover
United States 22 NASA PFS-2 4/16/1972 Orbiter
United States 23 NASA Apollo 17 12/7/1972 Manned Orbiter/Lander/Rover
United States 24 USAF/NASA Clementine (DSPSE) 1/25/1994 Orbiter
United States 25 NASA Lunar Prospector (Discovery 3) 1/7/1998 Orbiter
United States 26 NASA ARTEMIS P1 2/17/2007 Orbiter
United States 27 NASA ARTEMIS P2 2/17/2007 Orbiter
United States 28 NASA LCROSS 6/18/2009 Impactor
United States 29 NASA LRO 6/18/2009 Orbiter
United States 30 NASA Ebb (GRAIL-A) 9/10/2011 Orbiter
United States 31 NASA Flow (GRAIL-B) 9/10/2011 Orbiter
United States 32 NASA LADEE 9/7/2013 Orbiter
Wikipedia - List of Missions to the Moon


Country Mission Count Operator Spacecraft Launch Date Mission Type
Europe 1 ESA Mars Express 6/2/2003 Orbiter
India 1 ISRO MOM 11/5/2013 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 1 Soviet Union Mars 2 (4M No.171) 5/19/1971 Orbiter
Soviet Union (Russian Federation) 2 Soviet Union Mars 3 (4M No.172) 5/28/1971 Orbiter
United States 1 NASA Mariner 4 11/5/1964 Flyby
United States 2 NASA Mariner 6 2/25/1969 Flyby
United States 3 NASA Mariner 7 3/27/1969 Flyby
United States 4 NASA Mariner 9 5/30/1971 Orbiter
United States 5 NASA Viking 1 orbiter 8/20/1975 Orbiter
United States 6 NASA Viking 1 lander 8/20/1975 Lander
United States 7 NASA Viking 2 orbiter 9/9/1975 Orbiter
United States 8 NASA Viking 2 lander 9/9/1975 Lander
United States 9 NASA Mars Global Surveyor 11/7/1996 Orbiter
United States 10 NASA Mars Pathfinder 12/4/1996 Lander/Rover
United States 11 NASA Mars Odyssey 4/7/2001 Orbiter
United States 12 NASA Spirit (MER-A) 6/10/2003 Rover
United States 13 NASA Opportunity (MER-B) 7/8/2003 Rover
United States 14 NASA MRO 8/12/2005 Orbiter
United States 15 NASA Phoenix 8/4/2007 Lander
United States 16 NASA Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory) 11/26/2011 Rover
United States 17 NASA MAVEN 11/18/2013 Orbiter
Wikipedia - List of Missions to Mars

Relative Size of Planets to the Sun


Watch (Sade, Kiss Of Life)

Watch (Sade, The Sweetest Taboo)

Watch (Sade, No Ordinary Love)

Sade - "Lovers Rock"



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