DEMOCRACY

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BIRTH OF DEMOCRACY

During the earliest stages of human history, many humans believed in the existence of many Gods—and Goddesses—(which is known as polytheism). In a departure from earlier human societies, the Jewish people were credited with popularizing the idea of the existence of only one God (which is known as monotheism). One popular contemporary view is that God created Earth and the Earth's first human inhabitants, Adam and Eve, approximately 6,000 years ago. (It should noted that one of the most significant and famous body of laws to emerge from this ancient Jewish belief system was known as the Ten Commandments. It can be argued that these ancient Jewish laws—the Ten Commandments—formed the basis for some of the West's most cherished ideals about morality, that is, right and wrong.) The point here, however, is this: Much like the idea of the existence of only one God was not always what many humans believed historically, so, too, was the idea of democracy.

Watch (THE STORY OF THE JEWS | Episode One: In the Beginning)


For most of civilized human history, members of society have tended to vest, confer, or grant exclusive authority for collective (societal) decision-making into the hands of a single individual or into the hands of a small consortium of individuals (usually males). Rule by the sword (or brute force) was the norm during the earliest stages of human history. A raw, naked, unbridled, uninhibited manner of aggression also was the norm.

In a departure from earlier human societies, much like the Jewish people were credited with popularizing the idea of there existing only one God, it was the ancient Greeks who later would be credited with popularizing the idea of power being vested in the will of the people. Over 2,000 years ago, the formal name that the ancient Greeks ascribed to this will-of-the-people idea was democracy. (It should be noted that the notion of democracy began not too long before Jesus Christ appeared on Earth. Jesus Christ, too, was considered to have had Jewish origins. While some contemporary humans view Jesus Christ as a deity, other contemporary humans view Jesus Christ merely as a prophet of God. Still, other contemporary humans view Jesus Christ as a prophet who, over the centuries, has been transformed into or elevated to the status of a deity by other humans.)

Watch (Birth of Democracy)




Watch (Republic vs. Democracy - What Is The Real Form of the U.S. Government )


Democracy generally is defined as rule by the people in an orderly, peaceful, transparent, fair, and civilized manner. In reality, advanced democratic societies have systems of government known as participatory-representative democracies. Under a system of participatory-representative democracy, citizens elect their fellow citizens to represent their interests. Citizens entrust their elected officials to represent their political districts to the best of their abilities. In a participatory-representative democracy, power is wielded by elected and appointed officials, but it is wielded by the consent of citizens who elect them into public office. The exercise and limits of power usually are specified in a formal constitution and also are specified in an ever-changing body of laws.

A constitution generally is viewed as the written social compact or foundation that outlines how a given civilized society will govern itself or how a given society will conduct its daily affairs. Citizens generally pledge obedience to the society's constitution and obedience to the rule of law. To maintain societal stability and continuity, a formal process usually exists to amend or expand the constitution and to change existing laws to reflect the changing times.

As societies became more advanced, more populous, and more geographically dispersed, it became impractical for citizens to be involved in the day-to-day minutia of running a government and devising public policy. Most households were (and are today) too preoccupied with going to work to earn a living to be preoccupied with the day-to-day, decision-making chores of local, regional, state, and federal governments. Can you imagine the present-day 300 millions residents of the USA, on a daily basis, trying to keep track of—and trying to provide input on—every single item on the agendas of their local, regional, state, and federal governmental bodies where they reside? If citizens attempted this daily monitoring feat, then there would not be enough time left in the day for them to go to work to earn a living or for them to care for family members. As a result and as a practical solution, citizens have opted to elect or appoint leaders to represent their interests when government policies, regulations, and laws are enacted. The practice of citizens electing and appointing government officials to represent their interests is known as participatory-representative democracy.



USA DEMOCRACY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE

In a participatory-representative democracy, among other things, elected and appointed leaders determine the scope and limits of both public-sector governmental activities and private-sector commercial activities. Sometimes governments tend to tilt to the left end of the political spectrum. The liberals tend to exercise broader governmental influence over how society is structured and managed. At other times, governments tend to tilt to the right end of political spectrum. The conservatives tend to exercise narrower governmental influence over how society is structured and managed.

The USA Constitution and its system of government, when taken together, are considered by many humans throughout the world to be the preeminent manifestation of democracy on Earth today. Many humans throughout the world look to USA-style democracy as being a model or an ideal standard of democracy for others to emulate. The following three videos explain how the USA federal government works as defined in the USA Constitution.

Watch (Our Federal Government The Executive Branch)




Watch (Our Federal Government The Legislative Branch)




Watch (Our Federal Government The Judicial Branch)


Textbook explanations of democracy-in-theory tend to differ from the way democracy actually is practiced in reality. USA school children are taught in civics classes that democracy in the USA reduces to government of the people, by the people, and for the people. However, in the arena of USA politics, despite the clean-cut depictions of democracy, elections, and government in many civics textbooks, political dirty tricks and political smear tactics do happen during campaigns for public office. There are not-so-veiled attempts to engineer the outcome of elections, too, for instance, by changing long-established election rules and traditions to make it harder for citizens to vote, by implementing burdensome voter-registration requirements, by making voting at certain polling locations tedious and inconvenient to discourage citizens from voting, by partisan redistricting tactics, by altering the rules that govern the way in which electoral-college votes are allocated, and so forth. Remember the big Watergate political scandal in the USA during the 1970's.

Some political operatives simply are not content to let the political process run its normal course (that is, in an orderly, peaceful, transparent, fair, civilized, and lawful manner). They attempt to game the political system for personal gain. They attempt to game the political system to wield political influence and power.

Some of this election engineering is done under the cloak of anonymity. When it comes to USA elections, it is getting to the point where nobody knows who is paying for what anymore, which presents an excellent linked-data research project for someone to undertake. Political finance gradually is becoming a big secret. One thing is certain: Secrecy is not compatible with an open society. Citizens do not make informed decisions where secrecy is prevalent. When it comes to democracy, honesty and fairness are crucial to its survival. The chief reason for the discrepancy between democracy-in-theory and democracy-in-practice usually reduces to the intersection of ulterior motives by some such as the influence of money, greed, and the desire to wield power at any cost alongside a genuine desire by others to serve the general public interest.

One hotly debated public-policy topic in the USA at the present time is the manner in which political campaigns for public office are financed and run. Another hotly debated political topic in the USA at the present time is how much influence do undisclosed donors wield over the electoral process and election outcomes.

Watch (Campaign Spending)




Watch (Campaign Spending in the 2012 Election)




Watch (Explain It to Me: Campaign Fundraising)




Watch (Explain It to Me: Campaign Spending)




Read (2012 Presidential Campaign Finance Explorer)

It does not take a genius to see that, under the current USA campaign finance system, as political campaigns increasingly rely on having vast sums of money to compete with political rivals for public office, those who contribute the most money to the political process tend to have something of an advantage when it comes to influencing the outcome of governmental policies. It also does not take a genius to see that, as money increasingly becomes the dominant factor in elections, then the interests of ordinary citizens will tend to become marginalized. The interests of ordinary citizens will tend to become secondary to the interests of those who contribute vast sums of money to political campaigns. In the final analysis, the interests of those who contribute the most money to politicians will tend to have the most influence over public-policy decisions. Politicians remember the names of those who contribute vast sums of money to their campaigns. In case politicians do forget, big-money contributors to political campaigns will not hesitate to remind the electoral winners of their big-money contributions.

It would be naive to think that big-money contributors keep donating millions of dollars to political campaigns and keep spending even more millions of dollars on political advertisements purely out of a love for democracy. Otherwise, if the sole motive of these big-money political contributors was a love for democracy, then these big-money political contributors would be donating and spending equal sums of money on the political campaigns of all candidates regardless of their various political persuasions. In some instances, there usually is an element of quid pro quo or "what's in it for me" aspect to some of these big-money political contributions. When big money gets heavily intertwined into the political process, then I think that the process gradually will begin to become less about democracy or the will of the people and will begin to become more about using money to further the more narrowly defined agendas of lobbyists and special interest groups.

It remains for political scientists to thoroughly study whether the total sum of money spent on political campaigns is a significant factor in determining election outcomes at all levels of government. When it comes to political campaigns, one thing is certain under the current USA campaign finance system: Ongoing political activities such as messaging, voter recognition, and reaching out to as many potential voters as possible cost a lot of money. When money is paramount in the political process, when political spending is unlimited, and when political campaigns mainly are privately funded, it becomes possible for big-money contributors to overwhelm the political system (much like the way a denial-of-service attack on the World Wide Web can overwhelm a given computer network). The reason why big-money contributors potentially could overwhelm the political process is because the perspectives espoused and supported by big political contributors become the predominant perspectives that voters repeatedly and consistently get to hear. In effect, instead of one person, one vote, the potential exists for the extremely wealthy few (both extremely wealthy liberals and extremely wealthy conservatives) to sway millions of votes through various behind-the-scenes political machinations (such as slick advertising campaigns filled with half-truths). Much like a monopolist, the big-money contributors potentially could have the long-term effect of cornering the market on political speech, hence, political influence. The run or quest for the USA presidency has turned into one of the longest and the most expensive job auditions on Earth.

One of the roles of a free and independently thinking press is to provide readers, viewers, and listeners with a wide range of perspectives. One of the roles of political debates between competing political contenders is to give voters an opportunity to compare, contrast, and weigh various policy positions. In turn, when elections are held, voters are expected to take this information into account when deciding which candidate is most likely to best represent their own ideas about how the local, regional, state, or national government should be run. Voters are expected to use this information to decide which candidate's policy positions more closely align with their own political ideology or political philosophy.

Democracy is not a thing that should be taken for granted. A robust democracy requires robust participation by citizens. In this Age of the World Wide Web and in this Age of the Smartphone, most elected officials in the USA are extremely easy to reach and engage.



DISCOURSES ON GLOBAL DEMOCRACY

The following "What Is Democracy?" link in this section contains a series of 8 videos. These 8 videos offer global perspectives on democracy. It should be noted that the 8 videos in the link tend to offer liberal or left-leaning perspectives on the present-day state of global democracy.

What Is Democracy?



THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY

Maintenance of democracy in a society requires an informed and a vigilant citizenry. Citizens must keep a keen eye on how power is exercised. Citizens must keep a keen eye on how tax dollars are raised and spent. Citizens must be on alert for evidence of misuse and abuse of power by elected and appointed leaders. Citizens must be on alert for evidence of political corruption. Through fair and peaceful elections, citizens must remove from office those leaders who appear to have become unduly influenced by or preoccupied with ego, money, power, greed, fame, corrupt practices, and serving lobbyists and other specialized interest groups. Complacency and apathy by citizens can be viewed as the foes of democracy.

Watch (Top 10 Political Lies of All Time)


The Future of Democracy: A Worst Case Scenario

In speaking about the future of democracy, the following video offers a worst-case scenario for democracy:

Watch (Hacking Democracy)




The Future of Democracy: A Best Case Scenario

In speaking about the future of democracy, the following video offers a best-case scenario for democracy:

Watch (Democracy)


Humans do need order in their lives. Humans do need structure in their lives. Humans do need a sense of physical and psychological security in their lives. Humans do need a sense of stability, normalcy, and continuity in their lives. There is little doubt about it: Most humans would prefer to live in a perfect world on a Utopian planet Earth. Most humans would agree that perhaps anarchy (or mob rule) is too fluid and tyranny (or despotic rule) is too rigid as choices of ways to live. Humans must adhere to some form of governance to foster civilized living. What form of governance should humans follow? The reality is that humans adhere to many forms of governance. Democracy is but one of those forms of governance.

Democracy is neither a perfect system of governance nor is it the only way to run a government. When faced with competing choices of government types, there usually are pluses and minuses to each choice. Overall, democracy (and the rule of law) is widely accepted as the preferred type of government for ensuring perhaps the highest degree of individual/household liberty within the broader societal structure.

Capitalism, too, is neither a flawless system of commerce nor is it the only system of commerce. There is a tendency for some opponents of capitalism to portray the capitalists as gangs of villains and scoundrels who only seek to exploit workers, which is not to say that exploitative corporate behavior never occurs because it frequently does occur all across Earth. The tendency is for some opponents of capitalism to focus their wrath on the giant, multi-national corporations. The fact that many of these large corporations also donate millions of dollars to foundations, charities, and other philantrophic causes each year usually goes unnoticed. The truth of the matter about commerce is this: The vast majority of free-market business owners are small business owners and owners of neighborhood/community shops. Most small business owners employ less than 100 employees. In any given society, there will be lots of good citizens and a handful of bad citizens. The same thing applies to capitalism: In any given capitalist system, there are good capitalists and bad capitalists. I think that the good capitalists far outnumber the bad capitalists by a wide margin.

To be sure, some large corporations are quite admired. Some large corporations are considered to be some of the best places on Earth to work. Many consider it to be very prestigious to work at a government-run company such as NASA. According to Wikipedia, NASA employs roughly 18,000 individuals, but NASA also has established subcontracting relationships with many privately operated companies. Ideally, other corporations should seek to emulate the good examples set by these "best" and "most admired" corporations. Many consider it to be very prestigious to work at a privately run company such as Google. Many consider it to be very prestigious to attend privately run universities such as Harvard University or MIT. These kinds of institutions, generally speaking, tend to be linked to, or associated with, some of the best, brightest, and most talented members of society. When compared to the economic alternatives, (regulated) capitalism generally is accepted as the preferred system of commerce for ensuring perhaps the highest level of individual/household prosperity within the broader societal structure.

And, in case you hadn't noticed it, when it comes to various quality-of-life rankings, it is not unusual to see the democratic and free-market (capitalist) oriented countries receiving some of the highest marks. The slavery study below represents a case in point whereby the democratic and free-market oriented countries received some of the highest marks. Several other global quality-of-life rankings include these ones:

  1. Social Progress Index
  2. Index of Economic Freedom
  3. Freedom in the World
  4. Vision of Humanity

In a broader sense, beyond the political arena, life and liberty are not neutral. You can choose either to do something positive and constructive with your life, or you can choose to do the opposite. Doing the opposite implies to spend your life engaged in negative and counterproductive pursuits.



THE STORY OF MODERN SLAVERY

I wish to conclude this "Democracy" page by taking a brief look at present-day slavery on Earth. Democracy is taken to be synonymous with, or similar to, liberty. The opposite of liberty is slavery. The first table below surveys the prevalence of contemporary slavery and is sorted by country name. The slavery study was compiled by the Walk Free Foundation. The slavery study can be seen and downloaded at http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/.

The core data in the study is reproduced below. The objective here is to gather additional insights into the prevalence of present-day slavery on Earth. One aim of the book (The Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens: Heaven or Hell) is to search for the truth about the present-day human condition.

The data from the study suggests that the prevalence or degree of slavery intensifies markedly when starting at the first quartile and moving up to the 4th quartile. Assuming the intensity of slavery could be placed on an absolute scale of 0 to 25, then the average intensity of slavery felt by citizens of the 41 countries located in the 1st quartile would be 2.20. In contrast, the average intensity of slavery felt by the citizens of the 41 countries located in the 2nd quartile would be 6.38. The average intensity level would rise to 11.77 for citizens located in the 40 countries in the 3rd quartile, and it would rise to 24.52 for citizens located in the 40 countries of the 4th quartile. The pie chart below is presented to reflect the relative magnitude or intensity levels between the four quartiles.

Regarding the slavery study, the data suggests that the intensity of slavery is concentrated at the higher end of the scoring scale. However, it should be noted that the cases of Haiti and Mauritania are considered to be outliers. The scores for Haiti and Mauritania are so disproportionate to the scores of the other countries in the study until these two countries have the effect of skewing the overall high score in the fourth quartile. The abnormally high scores for Haiti and Mauritania seem to suggest that some very serious human rights issues exist in those countries at the present time.



Count Country Name Country Code Map Slavery Prevalence Factor
1 to 100
1 = Best Score
100 = Worst Score
Rank
1 to 160
1 = Worst
160 = Best
Population Country's Percent of Total Population Slaves Percent Slaves to Country Population Slavery Policy Risk Human Rights Risk Develop Rights Risk State Stability Risk Discrimination Risk Average Risk Factor
1 Afghanistan AF Map 10.50 58 29,824,536 0.43% 86,089 0.29% 89.39 86.02 93.05 79.55 48.14 79.23
2 Albania AL Map 11.07 51 3,162,083 0.05% 11,372 0.36% 32.82 34.81 37.05 57.11 42.68 40.90
3 Algeria DZ Map 7.29 91 38,481,705 0.55% 70,860 0.18% 92.93 90.00 46.07 50.10 32.35 62.29
4 Angola AO Map 4.84 116 20,820,525 0.30% 16,767 0.08% 71.71 62.94 62.46 64.20 62.62 64.78
5 Argentina AR Map 4.35 122 41,086,927 0.59% 35,368 0.09% 25.75 29.37 30.89 53.44 22.26 32.34
6 Armenia AM Map 10.57 57 2,969,081 0.04% 10,678 0.36% 4.54 77.24 38.28 57.47 39.71 43.45
7 Australia AU Map 2.15 138 22,683,600 0.33% 3,167 0.01% 4.54 10.02 16.60 13.38 6.38 10.18
8 Austria AT Map 1.14 150 8,462,446 0.12% 1,100 0.01% 4.54 2.95 13.25 15.30 2.65 7.74
9 Azerbaijan AZ Map 11.07 51 9,297,507 0.13% 33,439 0.36% 39.89 89.03 36.27 60.84 42.02 53.61
10 Bahrain BH Map 6.75 96 1,317,827 0.02% 2,679 0.20% 89.39 78.70 38.55 37.47 67.00 62.22
11 Bangladesh BD Map 9.54 71 154,695,368 2.22% 343,192 0.22% 71.71 60.33 65.21 59.65 40.70 59.52
12 Barbados BB Map 2.70 135 283,221 0.00% 46 0.02% 71.71 15.63 36.66 25.87 34.00 36.77
13 Belarus BY Map 4.82 117 9,464,000 0.14% 11,497 0.12% 57.57 93.01 35.84 56.41 36.65 55.90
14 Belgium BE Map 1.14 150 11,142,157 0.16% 1,448 0.01% 4.54 3.68 19.37 15.35 19.44 12.48
15 Benin BJ Map 23.57 7 10,050,702 0.14% 80,371 0.80% 61.11 35.46 76.97 53.48 46.08 54.62
16 Bolivia BO Map 9.30 76 10,496,285 0.15% 29,886 0.28% 50.50 34.81 52.74 61.37 49.71 49.83
17 Bosnia and Herzegovina BA Map 10.45 59 3,833,916 0.06% 13,789 0.36% 39.89 56.27 36.78 48.43 44.09 45.09
18 Botswana BW Map 19.92 39 2,003,910 0.03% 14,298 0.71% 89.39 34.89 47.33 28.89 64.60 53.02
19 Brazil BR Map 7.16 94 198,656,019 2.85% 209,622 0.11% 25.75 27.66 34.66 56.68 48.39 38.63
20 Brunei BN Map 3.72 127 412,238 0.01% 417 0.10% 36.36 85.86 44.30 27.74 50.50 48.95
21 Bulgaria BG Map 10.80 56 7,304,632 0.10% 27,739 0.38% 22.21 34.73 30.71 49.48 15.47 30.52
22 Burkina Faso BF Map 20.65 26 16,460,141 0.24% 114,745 0.70% 57.57 38.06 84.24 60.32 47.07 57.45
23 Burundi BI Map 19.64 41 9,849,569 0.14% 71,146 0.72% 78.79 67.65 80.19 69.89 41.69 67.64
24 Cambodia KH Map 19.99 38 14,864,646 0.21% 106,507 0.72% 71.71 74.64 56.23 65.31 45.50 62.68
25 Cameroon CM Map 20.87 20 21,699,631 0.31% 153,258 0.71% 32.82 77.49 71.75 61.67 57.32 60.21
26 Canada CA Map 1.73 144 34,880,491 0.50% 5,863 0.02% 4.54 2.46 16.44 10.91 19.11 10.69
27 Cape Verde CV Map 21.31 15 494,401 0.01% 3,688 0.75% 54.04 15.63 44.39 34.29 55.92 40.85
28 Central African Republic CF Map 20.36 31 4,525,209 0.06% 32,174 0.71% 85.86 66.19 78.61 77.90 60.71 73.85
29 Chad TD Map 20.19 34 12,448,175 0.18% 86,329 0.69% 85.86 66.19 84.15 77.05 58.07 74.26
30 Chile CL Map 7.44 89 17,464,814 0.25% 37,846 0.22% 36.36 12.70 27.58 24.49 46.24 29.48
31 China CN Map 8.59 84 1,350,695,000 19.38% 2,949,243 0.22% 64.64 91.06 41.96 48.82 53.02 59.90
32 Colombia CO Map 9.50 73 47,704,427 0.68% 129,923 0.27% 39.89 56.43 36.87 65.04 60.38 51.72
33 Costa Rica CR Map 1.66 146 4,805,295 0.07% 679 0.01% 57.57 14.90 36.21 32.51 23.08 32.85
34 Cote d'Ivoire CI Map 23.35 8 19,839,750 0.28% 156,827 0.79% 64.64 66.92 75.91 74.79 48.47 66.15
35 Croatia HR Map 10.32 61 4,267,000 0.06% 15,346 0.36% 39.89 39.69 28.42 32.49 31.02 34.30
36 Cuba CU Map 1.28 149 11,270,957 0.16% 2,116 0.02% 78.79 88.13 49.22 44.74 17.50 55.68
37 Czech Republic CZ Map 10.82 54 10,514,810 0.15% 37,817 0.36% 8.07 20.51 21.10 25.09 35.65 22.09
38 Democratic Republic of the Congo CD Map 20.80 23 65,705,093 0.94% 462,327 0.70% 92.93 85.04 84.12 80.47 61.87 80.89
39 Denmark DK Map 1.14 150 5,590,478 0.08% 727 0.01% 39.89 1.98 16.80 3.75 1.00 12.68
40 Djibouti DJ Map 10.00 66 859,652 0.01% 2,929 0.34% 71.71 75.37 72.59 47.89 47.23 62.96
41 Dominican Republic DO Map 9.01 79 10,276,621 0.15% 23,183 0.23% 43.43 36.93 39.89 61.25 53.19 46.94
42 Ecuador EC Map 9.78 69 15,492,264 0.22% 44,072 0.28% 43.43 48.71 37.58 53.04 43.92 45.34
43 Egypt EG Map 5.09 113 80,721,874 1.16% 69,372 0.09% 39.89 77.89 40.68 55.13 39.62 50.64
44 El Salvador SV Map 7.12 95 6,297,394 0.09% 10,490 0.17% 29.29 24.17 43.02 66.26 54.10 43.37
45 Equatorial Guinea GQ Map 20.07 35 736,296 0.01% 5,453 0.74% 92.93 82.69 53.68 63.52 50.50 68.66
46 Eritrea ER Map 21.31 15 6,130,922 0.09% 44,452 0.73% 96.46 96.59 86.04 56.83 67.00 80.58
47 Estonia EE Map 3.47 129 1,339,396 0.02% 1,496 0.11% 46.96 12.70 20.52 25.74 32.92 27.77
48 Ethiopia ET Map 22.06 12 91,728,849 1.32% 651,110 0.71% 25.75 91.14 81.10 62.43 49.80 62.04
49 Finland FI Map 1.14 150 5,414,293 0.08% 704 0.01% 8.07 8.07 21.59 9.52 3.40 10.13
50 France FR Map 2.13 139 65,696,689 0.94% 8,541 0.01% 18.68 25.14 20.88 21.10 19.20 21.00
51 Gabon GA Map 23.03 10 1,632,572 0.02% 13,707 0.84% 39.89 47.57 50.28 55.41 48.47 48.33
52 Gambia GM Map 23.20 9 1,791,225 0.03% 14,046 0.78% 50.50 64.07 81.45 56.79 42.27 59.02
53 Georgia GE Map 11.56 50 4,511,800 0.06% 16,227 0.36% 50.50 56.27 38.57 55.45 48.31 49.82
54 Germany DE Map 2.63 136 81,889,839 1.18% 10,646 0.01% 11.61 31.48 13.76 14.94 4.56 15.27
55 Ghana GH Map 21.04 18 25,366,462 0.36% 181,038 0.71% 68.18 25.06 67.11 48.01 49.55 51.58
56 Greece GR Map 1.14 150 11,280,167 0.16% 1,466 0.01% 36.36 34.00 25.39 43.89 31.52 34.23
57 Guatemala GT Map 5.75 101 15,082,831 0.22% 13,194 0.09% 39.89 35.95 46.35 59.86 60.38 48.49
58 Guinea GN Map 21.26 17 11,451,273 0.16% 82,198 0.72% 71.71 59.36 82.57 71.11 57.74 68.50
59 Guinea-Bissau GW Map 20.87 20 1,663,558 0.02% 12,186 0.73% 85.86 61.72 82.63 69.77 54.51 70.90
60 Guyana GY Map 9.29 77 795,369 0.01% 2,264 0.28% 61.11 39.04 67.71 50.20 50.95 53.80
61 Haiti HT Map 52.26 2 10,173,775 0.15% 209,165 2.06% 61.11 49.93 80.11 65.16 74.11 66.08
62 Honduras HN Map 5.42 110 7,935,846 0.11% 7,503 0.09% 46.96 52.94 57.22 76.27 61.29 58.94
63 Hong Kong HK Map 1.84 141 7,154,600 0.10% 1,543 0.02% 64.64 10.02 18.40 10.67 58.23 32.39
64 Hungary HU Map 10.82 54 9,943,755 0.14% 35,763 0.36% 61.11 22.86 28.30 22.27 39.95 34.90
65 Iceland IS Map 1.00 160 320,137 0.00% 22 0.01% 39.89 4.41 16.26 11.17 1.00 14.55
66 India IN Map 30.84 4 1,236,686,732 17.75% 13,956,010 1.13% 71.71 51.23 50.29 57.10 41.77 54.42
67 Indonesia ID Map 5.08 114 246,864,191 3.54% 210,970 0.09% 39.89 59.77 49.67 51.85 42.27 48.69
68 Iran IR Map 5.70 103 76,424,443 1.10% 65,312 0.09% 96.46 91.63 42.82 57.58 67.83 71.26
69 Iraq IQ Map 5.61 104 32,578,209 0.47% 28,252 0.09% 68.18 84.56 61.68 76.56 50.71 68.34
70 Ireland IE Map 1.00 160 4,588,798 0.07% 321 0.01% 22.21 10.51 18.35 17.77 20.52 17.87
71 Israel IL Map 5.23 111 7,907,900 0.11% 8,096 0.10% 29.29 50.66 19.79 34.55 35.57 33.97
72 Italy IT Map 3.12 132 60,917,978 0.87% 7,919 0.01% 29.29 30.67 21.47 38.99 21.92 28.47
73 Jamaica JM Map 4.03 124 2,712,100 0.04% 2,386 0.09% 32.82 29.77 48.30 56.86 51.78 43.91
74 Japan JP Map 3.31 130 127,561,489 1.83% 80,032 0.06% 61.11 12.62 16.13 12.18 45.66 29.54
75 Jordan JO Map 7.87 87 6,318,000 0.09% 12,843 0.20% 64.64 85.37 49.27 44.88 54.43 59.72
76 Kazakhstan KZ Map 8.51 85 16,797,459 0.24% 46,668 0.28% 36.36 82.20 30.26 58.05 38.14 49.00
77 Kenya KE Map 5.72 102 43,178,141 0.62% 37,349 0.09% 68.18 60.50 54.81 69.37 64.60 63.49
78 Kuwait KW Map 6.63 100 3,250,496 0.05% 6,608 0.20% 89.39 75.21 30.87 38.32 100.00 66.76
79 Kyrgyzstan KG Map 8.73 81 5,582,100 0.08% 16,027 0.29% 64.64 73.50 46.08 59.56 44.09 57.57
80 Laos LA Map 20.38 30 6,645,827 0.10% 50,440 0.76% 54.04 93.50 62.11 51.07 44.50 61.04
81 Latvia LV Map 3.21 131 2,025,473 0.03% 2,040 0.10% 39.89 40.58 26.19 33.57 44.42 36.93
82 Lebanon LB Map 4.72 119 4,424,888 0.06% 4,028 0.09% 68.18 53.10 34.91 62.36 83.50 60.41
83 Lesotho LS Map 19.34 44 2,051,545 0.03% 14,560 0.71% 68.18 37.09 70.07 46.88 46.57 53.76
84 Liberia LR Map 20.32 32 4,190,435 0.06% 29,504 0.70% 78.79 42.78 82.71 63.11 45.74 62.63
85 Libya LY Map 9.11 78 6,154,623 0.09% 17,683 0.29% 96.46 84.56 47.05 65.64 34.00 65.54
86 Lithuania LT Map 3.63 128 2,985,509 0.04% 2,909 0.10% 36.36 35.63 21.60 28.54 34.25 31.27
87 Luxembourg LU Map 1.14 150 531,441 0.01% 69 0.01% 36.36 14.41 6.42 9.77 17.62 16.91
88 Macedonia MK Map 8.94 80 2,105,575 0.03% 6,226 0.30% 32.82 32.62 33.54 55.47 38.88 38.67
89 Madagascar MG Map 5.22 112 22,293,914 0.32% 19,184 0.09% 82.32 78.87 78.66 59.20 50.62 69.94
90 Malawi MW Map 20.20 33 15,906,483 0.23% 110,391 0.69% 64.64 37.90 86.79 46.96 46.41 56.54
91 Malaysia MY Map 4.48 121 29,239,927 0.42% 25,260 0.09% 71.71 80.00 32.65 37.37 52.36 54.82
92 Mali ML Map 20.07 35 14,853,572 0.21% 102,240 0.69% 78.79 44.08 82.80 62.14 41.44 61.85
93 Mauritania MR Map 97.90 1 3,796,141 0.05% 151,353 3.99% 82.32 61.96 75.31 64.80 47.65 66.41
94 Mauritius MU Map 1.81 143 1,291,456 0.02% 535 0.04% 61.11 27.25 37.80 21.38 34.00 36.31
95 Mexico MX Map 5.57 107 120,847,477 1.73% 103,010 0.09% 43.43 51.64 38.60 61.22 43.10 47.60
96 Moldova MD Map 25.68 6 3,559,541 0.05% 33,325 0.94% 8.07 61.64 42.48 53.37 30.44 39.20
97 Mongolia MN Map 5.45 109 2,796,484 0.04% 4,729 0.17% 68.18 32.13 41.05 44.10 44.34 45.96
98 Montenegro ME Map 10.94 53 621,081 0.01% 2,234 0.36% 32.82 33.43 31.93 44.90 38.96 36.41
99 Morocco MA Map 7.23 93 32,521,143 0.47% 50,593 0.16% 85.86 68.46 44.31 47.68 47.98 58.86
100 Mozambique MZ Map 20.07 35 25,203,395 0.36% 173,493 0.69% 64.64 42.05 77.85 54.17 40.95 55.93
101 Myanmar MM Map 19.63 42 52,797,319 0.76% 384,037 0.73% 75.25 88.78 68.96 63.88 83.50 76.08
102 Namibia NA Map 18.89 46 2,259,393 0.03% 15,729 0.70% 75.25 37.17 47.61 36.65 67.00 52.74
103 Nepal NP Map 26.56 5 27,474,377 0.39% 258,806 0.94% 61.11 67.33 65.30 58.87 41.28 58.78
104 Netherlands NL Map 2.13 139 16,767,705 0.24% 2,180 0.01% 1.00 18.31 14.71 14.74 6.71 11.09
105 New Zealand NZ Map 1.10 159 4,433,100 0.06% 495 0.01% 11.61 9.29 17.35 6.77 11.09 11.22
106 Nicaragua NI Map 5.47 108 5,991,733 0.09% 5,798 0.10% 15.14 60.90 63.80 61.54 47.65 49.81
107 Niger NE Map 20.50 28 17,157,042 0.25% 121,249 0.71% 71.71 54.73 84.46 55.56 31.77 59.64
108 Nigeria NG Map 13.99 48 168,833,776 2.42% 701,032 0.42% 54.04 75.86 60.57 69.08 65.51 65.01
109 Norway NO Map 1.14 150 5,018,869 0.07% 652 0.01% 4.54 19.53 14.90 9.31 2.49 10.15
110 Oman OM Map 6.66 99 3,314,001 0.05% 5,739 0.17% 61.11 72.45 36.16 34.08 34.00 47.56
111 Pakistan PK Map 32.11 3 179,160,111 2.57% 2,127,132 1.19% 78.79 71.88 59.99 68.92 38.96 63.71
112 Panama PA Map 1.67 145 3,802,281 0.05% 548 0.01% 57.57 28.23 30.64 55.75 46.08 43.65
113 Papua New Guinea PG Map 5.58 106 7,167,010 0.10% 6,131 0.09% 89.39 44.73 66.33 49.52 78.25 65.64
114 Paraguay PY Map 9.49 74 6,687,361 0.10% 19,602 0.29% 39.89 32.13 42.03 62.28 57.49 46.77
115 Peru PE Map 10.04 65 29,987,800 0.43% 82,272 0.27% 39.89 47.33 38.91 48.17 53.93 45.65
116 Philippines PH Map 6.73 98 96,706,764 1.39% 149,973 0.16% 36.36 33.35 48.18 60.51 38.71 43.42
117 Poland PL Map 10.32 61 38,542,737 0.55% 138,619 0.36% 8.07 24.65 23.28 30.15 42.35 25.70
118 Portugal PT Map 1.64 147 10,526,703 0.15% 1,368 0.01% 25.75 13.92 25.32 17.92 23.99 21.38
119 Qatar QA Map 6.75 96 2,050,514 0.03% 4,168 0.20% 61.11 84.64 22.10 26.47 59.14 50.69
120 Republic of the Congo CG Map 21.01 19 4,337,051 0.06% 30,889 0.71% 71.71 47.33 67.14 67.21 53.27 61.33
121 Romania RO Map 4.00 125 21,326,905 0.31% 24,141 0.11% 22.21 51.80 34.98 42.82 27.96 35.96
122 Russia RU Map 12.43 49 143,533,000 2.06% 516,217 0.36% 50.50 86.83 24.47 66.33 47.32 55.09
123 Rwanda RW Map 19.62 43 11,457,801 0.16% 80,284 0.70% 71.71 84.07 69.84 44.13 45.17 62.98
124 Saudi Arabia SA Map 8.73 82 28,287,855 0.41% 57,504 0.20% 78.79 92.20 31.06 53.35 83.50 67.78
125 Senegal SN Map 22.31 11 13,726,021 0.20% 102,481 0.75% 54.04 48.31 77.91 57.06 57.57 58.98
126 Serbia RS Map 10.45 59 7,223,887 0.10% 25,981 0.36% 22.21 36.68 35.90 52.23 37.14 36.83
127 Sierra Leone SL Map 21.82 13 5,978,727 0.09% 44,644 0.75% 71.71 30.99 85.66 52.78 60.30 60.29
128 Singapore SG Map 1.82 142 5,312,400 0.08% 1,105 0.02% 18.68 61.23 19.58 27.66 42.93 34.02
129 Slovakia SK Map 10.32 61 5,410,267 0.08% 19,458 0.36% 15.14 22.95 24.38 40.80 24.65 25.58
130 Slovenia SI Map 9.83 67 2,058,152 0.03% 7,402 0.36% 8.07 6.85 22.08 15.65 28.95 16.32
131 Somalia SO Map 20.64 27 10,195,134 0.15% 73,156 0.72% 96.46 95.85 94.89 86.06 67.00 88.05
132 South Africa ZA Map 4.99 115 51,189,307 0.73% 44,545 0.09% 43.43 26.44 38.78 54.52 55.34 43.70
133 South Korea KR Map 2.32 137 50,004,000 0.72% 10,451 0.02% 18.68 22.38 24.91 20.63 18.04 20.93
134 Spain ES Map 1.64 147 46,217,961 0.66% 6,008 0.01% 22.21 20.26 20.40 22.50 20.85 21.24
135 Sri Lanka LK Map 4.81 118 20,328,000 0.29% 19,267 0.09% 61.11 75.78 43.60 58.58 47.48 57.31
136 Sudan SD Map 20.86 22 37,195,349 0.53% 264,518 0.71% 85.86 96.59 81.20 81.79 43.35 77.76
137 Suriname SR Map 9.79 68 534,541 0.01% 1,522 0.28% 50.50 30.59 49.44 36.27 57.90 44.94
138 Swaziland SZ Map 3.95 126 1,230,985 0.02% 1,302 0.11% 71.71 68.46 53.17 46.98 67.74 61.62
139 Sweden SE Map 1.14 150 9,516,617 0.14% 1,237 0.01% 1.00 8.32 16.79 11.05 1.83 7.80
140 Switzerland CH Map 1.14 150 7,997,152 0.11% 1,040 0.01% 32.82 8.80 15.05 11.46 20.02 17.63
141 Syria SY Map 5.59 105 22,399,254 0.32% 19,234 0.09% 92.93 94.88 58.58 63.79 43.76 70.79
142 Tajikistan TJ Map 9.59 70 8,008,990 0.11% 23,802 0.30% 32.82 92.36 56.88 63.76 39.62 57.09
143 Tanzania TZ Map 20.47 29 47,783,107 0.69% 329,503 0.69% 46.96 54.56 79.41 56.68 45.25 56.57
144 Thailand TH Map 20.78 24 66,785,001 0.96% 472,811 0.71% 54.04 65.86 36.36 45.06 47.23 49.71
145 Timor-Leste TL Map 4.56 120 1,210,233 0.02% 1,020 0.08% 64.64 26.20 61.71 52.16 51.53 51.25
146 Togo TG Map 21.53 14 6,642,928 0.10% 48,794 0.73% 61.11 70.66 76.30 54.35 42.60 61.00
147 Trinidad and Tobago TT Map 2.81 133 1,337,439 0.02% 486 0.04% 71.71 27.42 31.39 43.68 36.48 42.14
148 Tunisia TN Map 4.35 122 10,777,500 0.15% 9,271 0.09% 68.18 76.67 38.40 48.65 48.39 56.06
149 Turkey TR Map 7.40 90 73,997,128 1.06% 120,201 0.16% 43.43 70.33 37.31 45.23 46.41 48.54
150 Turkmenistan TM Map 8.67 83 5,172,931 0.07% 14,711 0.28% 71.71 97.07 53.17 66.38 47.89 67.25
151 Uganda UG Map 20.73 25 36,345,860 0.52% 254,541 0.70% 32.82 76.02 71.18 61.95 61.79 60.75
152 Ukraine UA Map 8.42 86 45,593,300 0.65% 112,895 0.25% 61.11 52.29 39.16 59.40 35.98 49.59
153 United Arab Emirates AE Map 7.74 88 9,205,651 0.13% 18,713 0.20% 36.36 84.80 29.18 35.57 50.50 47.28
154 United Kingdom GB Map 1.00 160 63,227,526 0.91% 4,426 0.01% 15.14 16.85 15.93 18.24 20.27 17.29
155 United States US Map 2.77 134 313,914,040 4.50% 59,644 0.02% 8.07 10.75 15.56 26.86 29.37 18.12
156 Uruguay UY Map 9.51 72 3,395,253 0.05% 9,978 0.29% 39.89 13.92 28.43 27.04 51.62 32.18
157 Uzbekistan UZ Map 15.67 47 29,776,850 0.43% 166,667 0.56% 54.04 97.07 43.70 63.53 44.50 60.57
158 Venezuela VE Map 9.34 75 29,954,782 0.43% 79,629 0.27% 32.82 82.04 40.52 72.72 40.20 53.66
159 Vietnam VN Map 10.18 64 88,775,500 1.27% 248,705 0.28% 39.89 90.65 41.97 48.98 43.59 53.02
160 Yemen YE Map 7.28 92 23,852,409 0.34% 41,303 0.17% 92.93 95.29 64.84 69.44 67.33 77.97
161 Zambia ZM Map 19.83 40 14,075,099 0.20% 96,175 0.68% 57.57 50.58 69.39 61.56 59.31 59.68
162 Zimbabwe ZW Map 19.33 45 13,724,317 0.20% 93,749 0.68% 89.39 93.09 63.98 72.77 66.59 77.16


Global Slavery: Performance Summary, Indices, and Measures
SUMMARY Slavery Prevalence Factor
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
Rank
1 = Worst
160 = Best
Country's Percent of Total Population
0.001% = Lowest
100.00% = Highest
Percent Slaves to Country Population
0.00% = Lowest
5.00% = Highest
Slavery Policy Risk
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
Human Rights Risk
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
Development Rights Risk
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
State Stability Risk
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
Discrimination Risk
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
Average Risk Factor
1.00 = Best
100.00 = Worst
Worst Score 97.90
Mauritania
160
Iceland
Ireland
United Kingdom
19.38%
China
3.99%
Mauritania
96.46
Eritrea
Iran
Libya
Somalia
97.07
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
94.89
Somalia
86.06
Somalia
100
Kuwait
88.05
Somalia
Best Score 1.00
Iceland
Ireland
1
Mauritania
0.0048%
Barbados
Iceland
0.01%
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Costa Rica
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Panama
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
1
Netherlands
Sweden
1.98
Denmark
6.42
Luxembourg
3.75
Denmark
1.00
Denmark
Iceland
7.74
Austria
Median (Middle or Center) Score 8.73
Kyrgyzstan
Saudi Arabia
82
Saudi Arabia
0.15%
Bolivia
Czech Republic
Dominican Republic
Haiti
Portugal
Somalia
Tunisia
0.26%
Colombia
Peru
Venezuela
54.04
Verde
Laos
Nigeria
Senegal
Thailand
Uzbekistan
50.95 42
Vietnam
Paraguay
52.91
Ecuador
45.21
Rwanda
Tanzania
50.97
Qatar
Timor-Leste
Mean (Average) Score 11.13
Albania
Azerbaijan
81
Kyrgyzstan
0.62%
Kenya
0.36%
Albania
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Croatia
Czech Republic
Georgia
Hungary
Montenegro
Poland
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
51.35
Bolivia
Gambia
Georgia
Russia
Suriname
51.25
India
46.36
Guatemala
47.66
Morocco
43.63
Vietnam
48.05
Gabon
Indices Risk 1. Slavery Prevalence Variables:

- Child Marriage

- Traffiked OUT

- Traffiked IN

- INOUT

- Slaves (Number of)
      Risk 2. Slavery Policy Variables:

- Prevention
Prosecution

- Protection

- Law Enforcement Training

- Migration Regulation

- Monitoring of Labour Practices

- Parallel Legal Systems
Risk 3. Human Rights Variables:

- Access to Legal and Property Rights

- Civil Liberties

- Freedom of Assembly

- Freedom of Religion

- Freedom of Speech

- Political Rights

- Worker's Rights
Risk 4. Development Rights Variables:

- Access to Financial Services

- Cell Phones Users

- Credit Information

- GDPPPP (Gross Domestic Product Purchasing Power Parity)

- HDI (Human Development Index)

- International Debt

- Internet Activity

- Literacy

- Social Safety Net
Risk 5. State Stability Variables:

- Corruption

- Governance

- Independence of Judiciary

- Peace Index

- Political Instability

- Violent Crime

- Weapons Access
Risk 6. Women's Rights and Discrimination Variables:

- GINI Coefficient

- Women's Economic Rights

- Women's Political Rights
Average of Risk Factors 2.; 3.; 4.; 5.; and 6.


The next table takes the global slavery index data and sorts it from the best to the worst overall slavery prevalence score.

Global Slavery: Prevalence Factor Sorted from Best to Worst
Country Name Slavery Prevalence Factor Cumulative Score Each Quartile Cumulative Score All Quartiles
Iceland 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ireland 1.00 2.00 2.00
United Kingdom 1.00 3.00 3.00
New Zealand 1.10 4.10 4.10
Austria 1.14 5.24 5.24
Belgium 1.14 6.38 6.38
Denmark 1.14 7.52 7.52
Finland 1.14 8.67 8.67
Greece 1.14 9.81 9.81
Luxembourg 1.14 10.95 10.95
Norway 1.14 12.09 12.09
Sweden 1.14 13.23 13.23
Switzerland 1.14 14.37 14.37
Cuba 1.28 15.65 15.65
Portugal 1.64 17.29 17.29
Spain 1.64 18.93 18.93
Costa Rica 1.66 20.59 20.59
Panama 1.67 22.26 22.26
Canada 1.73 23.99 23.99
Mauritius 1.81 25.80 25.80
Singapore 1.82 27.62 27.62
Hong Kong 1.84 29.46 29.46
France 2.13 31.59 31.59
Netherlands 2.13 33.72 33.72
Australia 2.15 35.88 35.88
South Korea 2.32 38.20 38.20
Germany 2.63 40.82 40.82
Barbados 2.70 43.52 43.52
United States 2.77 46.29 46.29
Trinidad and Tobago 2.81 49.10 49.10
Italy 3.12 52.22 52.22
Latvia 3.21 55.44 55.44
Japan 3.31 58.74 58.74
Estonia 3.47 62.22 62.22
Lithuania 3.63 65.85 65.85
Brunei 3.72 69.57 69.57
Swaziland 3.95 73.52 73.52
Romania 4.00 77.53 77.53
Jamaica 4.03 81.55 81.55
Tunisia 4.35 85.91 85.91
Argentina 4.35 90.26 90.26
Malaysia 4.48 4.48 94.74
Timor-Leste 4.56 9.04 99.30
Lebanon 4.72 13.76 104.02
Sri Lanka 4.81 18.57 108.83
Belarus 4.82 23.39 113.65
Angola 4.84 28.23 118.49
South Africa 4.99 33.22 123.48
Indonesia 5.08 38.30 128.56
Egypt 5.09 43.40 133.66
Madagascar 5.22 48.62 138.88
Israel 5.23 53.85 144.11
Honduras 5.42 59.27 149.53
Mongolia 5.45 64.72 154.98
Nicaragua 5.47 70.19 160.45
Mexico 5.57 75.76 166.02
Papua New Guinea 5.58 81.34 171.60
Syria 5.59 86.93 177.19
Iraq 5.61 92.53 182.79
Iran 5.70 98.24 188.49
Kenya 5.72 103.96 194.22
Guatemala 5.75 109.71 199.97
Kuwait 6.63 116.34 206.60
Oman 6.66 123.00 213.25
Philippines 6.73 129.72 219.98
Bahrain 6.75 136.47 226.73
Qatar 6.75 143.23 233.48
El Salvador 7.12 150.35 240.61
Brazil 7.16 157.51 247.77
Morocco 7.23 164.75 255.00
Yemen 7.28 172.02 262.28
Algeria 7.29 179.31 269.57
Turkey 7.40 186.71 276.97
Chile 7.44 194.15 284.41
United Arab Emirates 7.74 201.89 292.15
Jordan 7.87 209.76 300.02
Ukraine 8.42 218.18 308.43
Kazakhstan 8.51 226.69 316.95
China 8.59 235.28 325.54
Turkmenistan 8.67 243.95 334.21
Saudi Arabia 8.73 252.68 342.94
Kyrgyzstan 8.73 261.42 351.67
Macedonia 8.94 8.94 360.61
Dominican Republic 9.01 17.95 369.62
Libya 9.11 27.06 378.73
Guyana 9.29 36.35 388.03
Bolivia 9.30 45.65 397.32
Venezuela 9.34 54.99 406.66
Paraguay 9.49 64.48 416.16
Colombia 9.50 73.98 425.66
Uruguay 9.51 83.49 435.17
Bangladesh 9.54 93.04 444.71
Tajikistan 9.59 102.63 454.30
Ecuador 9.78 112.41 464.08
Suriname 9.79 122.20 473.87
Slovenia 9.83 132.03 483.70
Djibouti 10.00 142.03 493.70
Peru 10.04 152.07 503.74
Vietnam 10.18 162.25 513.92
Croatia 10.32 172.57 524.24
Poland 10.32 182.89 534.57
Slovakia 10.32 193.22 544.89
Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.45 203.66 555.34
Serbia 10.45 214.11 565.78
Afghanistan 10.50 224.61 576.29
Armenia 10.57 235.18 586.86
Bulgaria 10.80 245.98 597.65
Czech Republic 10.82 256.80 608.47
Hungary 10.82 267.62 619.29
Montenegro 10.94 278.56 630.23
Albania 11.07 289.63 641.30
Azerbaijan 11.07 300.69 652.37
Georgia 11.56 312.25 663.93
Russia 12.43 324.68 676.35
Nigeria 13.99 338.67 690.34
Uzbekistan 15.67 354.34 706.01
Namibia 18.89 373.23 724.90
Zimbabwe 19.33 392.56 744.23
Lesotho 19.34 411.90 763.57
Rwanda 19.62 431.52 783.19
Myanmar 19.63 451.15 802.82
Burundi 19.64 470.78 822.46
Zambia 19.83 19.83 842.29
Botswana 19.92 39.75 862.21
Cambodia 19.99 59.74 882.20
Equatorial Guinea 20.07 79.81 902.27
Mali 20.07 99.88 922.34
Mozambique 20.07 119.96 942.41
Chad 20.19 140.15 962.61
Malawi 20.20 160.35 982.81
Liberia 20.32 180.67 1003.13
Central African Republic 20.36 201.03 1023.49
Laos 20.38 221.41 1043.87
Tanzania 20.47 241.88 1064.34
Niger 20.50 262.38 1084.84
Somalia 20.64 283.02 1105.48
Burkina Faso 20.65 303.67 1126.13
Uganda 20.73 324.39 1146.85
Thailand 20.78 345.18 1167.63
Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.80 365.98 1188.44
Sudan 20.86 386.84 1209.29
Cameroon 20.87 407.70 1230.16
Guinea-Bissau 20.87 428.57 1251.03
Republic of the Congo 21.01 449.57 1272.03
Ghana 21.04 470.62 1293.07
Guinea 21.26 491.88 1314.34
Eritrea 21.31 513.19 1335.65
Cape Verde 21.31 534.50 1356.95
Togo 21.53 556.03 1378.49
Sierra Leone 21.82 577.85 1400.31
Ethiopia 22.06 599.91 1422.37
Senegal 22.31 622.23 1444.69
Gabon 23.03 645.25 1467.71
Gambia 23.20 668.46 1490.91
Cote d'Ivoire 23.35 691.81 1514.26
Benin 23.57 715.37 1537.83
Moldova 25.68 741.05 1563.51
Nepal 26.56 767.61 1590.07
India 30.84 798.46 1620.91
Pakistan 32.11 830.56 1653.02
Haiti 52.26 882.83 1705.29
Mauritania 97.90 980.72 1803.18
Best Score 1.00    
First quartile (25th percentile) Q1 4.39    
Median Score (50th percentile) Q2 8.73    
Third quartile (75th percentile) Q3 19.64    
IQR (Interquartile range) Q3 - Q1 15.25    
Worst Score 97.90    

Global Slavery: Abbreviated Quartile View
Best Score Quartile1 Quartile2 Quartile3 Quartile4 Worst Score
25.00% 25.00% 25.00% 25.00%
1.00 4.39 8.73 19.64 97.90 97.90
  From 1.00 to 4.39 From 4.40 to 8.73 From 8.74 to 19.64 From 19.65 to 97.90  
  41 countries 41 countries 40 countries 40 countries  

Global Slavery: Abbreviated Cumulative View
Quartile Number of Countries Studied Cumulative Scores Percent Scores Quartile Score Difference
1st 41 90.26 5.01%  
2nd 41 261.42 14.50% 171.16
3rd 40 470.78 26.11% 209.37
4th 40 980.72 54.39% 509.94
Total 162 1803.18 100.00%  

The following graphic (or box-and-whisker plot) shows where the prevalence of slavery exists. The median line (8.73) falls closer to the lower part of the box. The smaller area (that is, as represented by rectangle ABCD) of box ABEF falls below the median, which indicates that scores below the median are more uniform, similar, or closer together. The larger area (that is, as represented by rectangle CDEF) of box ABEF falls above the median line, which indicates that scores above the median are more varied, dissimilar, and dispersed. In the case of this particular slavery study, it would have been preferable to have seen most of the data consisting of lower scores instead of the higher scores.

slavery prevalence 2013: box-and-whisker plot

The line at the bottom of the box-and-whisker graphic indicates that 1 is the lowest score. The line stretches from the 1st quartile (4.39) down to 1. This shorter line or whisker indicates that, of the 162 countries studied, the lower scores comprise a smaller percentage of the overall pie. The line at the top of the graphic starts at the 3rd quartile (19.64) and stretches up to the highest score. Although 97.90 is the highest score in the data, the graphic stops at a high score of 32.11. The reason why the graphic stops at a high score of 32.11 is because the scores for Haiti and Mauritania are treated as outliers or as being too far outside the norm. The longer line or whisker at the top of the box indicates that, of the 162 countries studied, the higher scores comprise a larger percentage of the overall pie. The size of the slices in the pie chart below can be viewed as representing the relative difference in intensity of slavery between citizens living in the four quartiles.

slavery prevalence 2013: pie chart

If, for instance, all countries would have scored the same, say, 1.75, then the pie would have been divided into four equal sizes. The intensity of slavery (or lack thereof) would have been felt the same (that is, a 1.75) by everybody on Earth. The pie chart is not meant to reflect absolute intensity. It is meant to reflect relative magnitudes or relative intensity between the four quartiles.



Watch (Mauritania: Slavery's Last Stronghold)




On the "Global Awareness" page of this website, I mentioned that a long, hard road lies ahead, that is, before humans attain a state of Heaven on Earth for the living (as opposed to a commonly held belief that humans—and perhaps other plants and animals, too—will be going to live in a place called Heaven after death). The "Guns and Bombs," "War and Peace," and "The Nuclear Threat" pages of this website surveyed how the specter of global nuclear warfare threatened not only human existence but also threatened all life on Earth. Walk Free Foundation's slavery study serves as yet another somber reminder to humans. The slavery study serves to remind humans of the ever-present gulf between "the life that is" and "the life that can be" on Earth. Will humans bridge the gulf? I think that they will.

Listen (Stevie Wonder, Look Around)




THE 21ST CENTURY AND BEYOND

Humans must not lose sight of the fact that Earth is home. Earth is the only known habitable home for humans on a full-time, permanent basis (that is, on a 24/7/365 basis or 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year). Humans can either make life on Earth a heavenly experience or a nightmarish experience. For, in the words of the character Dorothy, "There's no place like home."

Watch [The Wizard Of Oz IMAX 3D Official Trailer #1 (2013) - Judy Garland Movie]




Watch [There's No Place Like Home - The Wizard of Oz (8/8) Movie CLIP (1939)]


One 21st century challenge for humans is to transform Earth into a land of unheralded beauty, peace, and prosperity for all. By working together as a united and cohesive species coupled with a global (Marshall-like) master plan of action for the world, I think that humans can meet this 21st century challenge. It's time for global progress.

Watch (Our Solar System - Size Of Planets and Stars to Scale)



When speaking of Earth as a 24/7/365 home for humans, it was Albert Einstein who revealed to humans that everything throughout the Universe is relative. For example, spending one year on Earth is not the same thing as spending one year on, say, Pluto. For example, weighing 100 pounds on Earth is not the same thing as weighing 100 pounds on, say, Pluto. One year on Earth is equivalent to 0.004 of a year on Pluto. One hundred pounds (45 kilograms) on Earth would be equivalent to about 7 pounds (3 kilograms) on Pluto. (NOTE: In reaching the solution of 7 pounds on Pluto, this example uses a rounded gravitational acceleration rate of 10 meters per second squared on Earth and an equivalent acceleration rate of 0.067 meter per second squared on Pluto.)

Gravity Probe B and Space-Time





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