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BACK BOOK COVER

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The author has ventured far, far away from the safe, secure, serene, and protective womb of his beloved Mother Earth. He has gathered together his belongings, boarded his light beam, and blasted off in pursuit of Heaven.

The author invites you, the reader, to climb aboard, buckle up, and enjoy the ride. You will laugh. You will cry. You will feel energized. For, much like the flaming sword turning every which way, the author hopes that this space-time odyssey warms your heart, lifts your spirit, and inspires you to become a better human being.

The author invites you to experience a new dimension of living that he calls the Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens. As you travel along, hopefully, you, too, will realize this one basic fact: No matter how long one lives, or no matter how far one travels through time and space, Heaven remains a heartbeat away.

This book encourages 21st-century human beings to universally embrace scientific, democratic, and free-market means in their never-ending quest for knowledge, wisdom, prosperity, and a higher quality of life. It encourages humans to accept the principle that all humans are equally human. This book simultaneously attempts to demonstrate why it is imperative that 21st-century humans peacefully become global villagers. At stake not only is their survival as a species but also the survival of all living things on Earth.

Edward Bruessard the age of bacteria and algae
the age of the trilobites
the age of the fishes
the age of the land plants
The Age of the Insects
The Age of the Amphibians
The Age of the Trees
The Age of the Giant Reptiles
THE AGE OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS
THE AGE OF THE MAMMALS
THE AGE OF HOMO SAPIENS
THE AGE OF HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS


Copyright 1997 Edward E. Bruessard
(All Rights Reserved)
Revised, Updated, Expanded, and First Released: August 2011




Excerpt from the Conclusions


When viewed from the perspective of the cosmic timescale, the tenure of the species Homo sapiens sapiens in Existence has only just begun. Based on the fossil record and based on recorded history, some approximate milestone dates for the human organism in Existence include the following:

  • Big Bang: 10 to 20 billion years ago. The point of reference used by scientists to formulate scientific explanations of Life, Existence, Origins, and reality. The galaxies are believed to have formed.
  • Solar System: 5 to 10 billion years ago. The Solar System is believed to have formed.
  • Earth: 4 to 5 billion years ago. The Earth is believed to have formed.
  • Pre-Cambrian Earth Era: 4 billion to 600 million years ago. Single-cell microscopic life forms are believed to have emerged on Earth (also called The Age of the Bacteria).
  • Cambrian Earth Period: 600 to 500 million years ago. Multi-cell, water-bound, macroscopic life forms are believed to have emerged on Earth (also called The Age of the Trilobites).
  • Ordovician Earth Period: 500 to 440 million years ago. Life forms with shells and jawless fishes are believed to have emerged on Earth (also called The Age of the Fishes).
  • Silurian Earth Period: 440 to 400 million years ago. Plants are believed to have populated Earth (also called The Age of the Land Plants).
  • Devonian Earth Period: 400 to 350 million year ago. Amphibians and insects are believed to have populated Earth (also called The Age of the Insects).
  • Carboniferous (Mississippian) Earth Period: 350 to 305 million years ago. Amphibians are believed to be prevalent on Earth, and the first conifer-like plants are believed to have emerged on Earth (also called The Age of the Amphibians).
  • Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) Earth Period: 305 to 270 million year ago. Forests and the first reptiles are believed to have emerged on Earth (also called The Age of the Trees).
  • Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic Earth Periods: 270 to 135 million years ago. Giant dinosaurs become widespread; flying reptiles and birds are believed to have emerged on Earth (also called The Age of the Giant Reptiles).
  • Cretaceous Earth Period: 135 to 70 million years ago. First flowering plants are believed to have emerged on Earth while dinosaurs are believed to have reached their zenith with their extinction soon to follow (also called The Age of the Flowering Plants).
  • Tertiary (Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene Epochs) Earth Period: 70 to 3 million years ago. Flowering plants and mammals are believed to have become widespread on Earth (also called The Age of the Mammals). The first hominids or erect-walking mammals are believed to have emerged.
    • Miocene Earth Epoch: 25 to 15 million years ago. The Ramapithecus species or ape-like being is believed to have emerged in Africa.
    • Pliocene Earth Epoch: 15 to 5 million years ago. The Ardipithecus species or ape-like being is believed to have emerged in eastern Africa.
    • Pliocene Earth Epoch: 5 to 3 million years ago. The Australopithecus species or ape-like beings of southern and eastern Africa are believed to have emerged on Earth.
  • Quaternary (Pleistocene Epoch) Earth Period: 3 million to 10,000 years ago. The hominids are believed to have become widespread on Earth (also called The Age of Homo Sapiens).
    • The species Homo habilis (handy man) is believed to have emerged - 2.5 to 1.5 million years ago. The human-like fossil is known as the KNM-ER 1470 from the Lower Pleistocene epoch.
    • The species Homo erectus (upright man) is believed to have emerged - 1.5 million to 500,000 years ago. Members of this species are popularly characterized as being related to Peking Man from the Middle Pleistocene epoch.
    • The species Homo sapiens (wise man) is believed to have emerged - 500,000 to 200,000 years ago. Members of this species are popularly characterized as being related to Rhodesia Man from the Upper Pleistocene epoch.
    • The species Homo sapiens sapiens (very wise man) is believed to have emerged - 200,000 years ago to extant. Members of this species are popularly characterized as being related to Cro-Magnon Man from the Holocene epoch.
  • 10,000 years ago: Contemporary human beings (also called the Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens) such as the Negroids, Mongoloids, Caucasoids, and Australoids transition from wandering bands of hunter-gatherers to residing in permanent farming settlements with domesticated animals on Earth.
  • 5,000 B.C. (Before Christ): Sumer (present-day Iraq) is considered by many to be the cradle of modern human civilization.
  • 4,000 B.C.: Jewish history establishes that God created Adam and Eve during this period, and Adam and Eve are said to be the true ancestors of modern human beings on Earth.
  • 3,000 B.C.: Rise of Egyptian civilization. Worship of many gods is prevalent on Earth.
  • circa 1,600 B.C.: An Egyptian medical textbook, the Edwin Smith papyrus, represents one of the earliest known applications of the scientific method.
  • circa 1393 B.C.: Moses, a descendant of Adam and Eve, is born. Later in life, Moses would be visited by an angel in the form of a burning bush and would be anointed as a prophet of God. Moses would receive the Ten Commandments from God and would lead the enslaved Jewish people from ancient Egypt to the land of Palestine, which was also known as the land of Canaan (including Philistines).
  • circa 580 B.C.: Thales of Miletus, a Greek philosopher, introduced a more refined application of the scientific method.
  • 1 A.D. (After the Death of Jesus Christ 2,010 years ago as of 2010): Jesus Christ appeared on Earth as an emissary of God. Jesus Christ would affirm Judaism and the Torah and would offer humans eternal life with God on Judgment Day in a place known as Heaven. The Christian religion was founded whereby human belief in one God would become prevalent on Earth, namely, some years after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ (albeit belief in one God is traced back to circa 1850 B.C. during the time of Abraham and before Jewish migration from the land of Canaan to Egypt).
  • 610 A.D. (1,400 years ago as of 2010): Islam is founded by Mohammed who, at age 40, was visited in a cave near Mecca (Saudi Arabia) by God's archangel, Gabriel, and was anointed as a prophet of God.
  • May 1543 A.D. (467 years ago as of 2010): Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish astronomer, publishes a heliocentric cosmology, which depicted the Earth as orbiting the Sun instead of the Sun orbiting Earth.
  • July 1687 A.D. (323 years ago as of 2010): Isaac Newton, a United Kingdom scientist and mathematician, publishes his laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation to explain how the entire Universe works. Sir Isaac Newton's achievements were monumental. It was quite a feat for one human to deduce how the entire Universe works. Sir Isaac Newton also created the optics and calculus disciplines of study while also explaining how the entire Universe works. It was as if Sir Isaac Newton were afforded the privilege of momentarily residing inside God's brain and recording God's every thought. It is mind-boggling to think that a single human being is capable of displaying such piercing intellect.
  • July 1776 A.D. (234 years ago as of 2010): USA declares its independence from Great Britain. USA civilization, as an independent nation, formally begins in the New World.
  • November 1859 A.D. (151 years ago as of 2010): Charles Darwin, a United Kingdom scientist, publishes the controversial theory of evolution to explain how the diversity of life emerged on Earth. The controversy arose because Charles Darwin's theory of evolution clashed with the teachings of the Holy Bible and the teachings of the Torah about how life began on Earth.
  • March 1893 A.D. (117 years ago as of 2010): A Serbian-born USA engineer, Nikola Tesla, publicly demonstrates wireless radio communications. Tesla's demonstration was a precursor to the invention of contemporary radio, which marked the wireless union of preexisting wired technologies such as the telegraph (i.e., Samuel Morse's text-messaging device in 1844), the telephone (i.e., Alexander Graham Bell's telecommunications device in 1876), and the phonograph (i.e., Thomas Edison's audio-recording device in 1877).
  • December 1903 A.D. (107 years ago as of 2010): USA inventors and brothers, Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright, built and successfully flew the first mechanized airplane.
  • November 1915 A.D. (95 years ago as of 2010): Albert Einstein, a German-born USA mathematician, introduces the theory of general relativity, which refined and redefined Sir Isaac Newton's explanation of how the entire Universe works.
  • 1923 A.D. (87 years ago as of 2010): Sigmund Freud, a Czech Republic-born Austrian physician, publishes The Ego and the Id in an effort to explain why humans behave the way that they do.
  • 1926 A.D. (84 years ago as of 2010): John Logie Baird, a Scottish inventor, gives the first public demonstration of broadcast television, which marked the electronic union of sight, motion, and sound in two dimensions.
  • 1934 A.D. (76 years ago as of 2010): Karl Popper, an Austrian-born United Kingdom scientist, publishes The Logic of Scientific Discovery, which injected improved standards of rigorousness into the scientific method.
  • July 1945 A.D. (65 years ago as of 2010): The USA successfully tests the world's first atomic bomb.
  • August 1945 A.D. (65 years ago as of 2010): The USA drops atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II.
  • February 1953 A.D. (57 years ago as of 2010): United Kingdom scientist Francis Crick and USA scientist James Watson decipher the double-helix structure of the DNA molecule, the basic building block for all life on Earth.
  • July 1969 A.D. (41 years ago as of 2010): With the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the helm on Earth, USA astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin explore the Moon.
  • October 1969 A.D. (41 years ago as of 2010): The USA successfully tests the Internet, which would later make possible revolutionary human interactions on a global scale by merging all kinds of technologies (such as radio, television, telephone, electronic mail, text chats, webcam chats, teleconference chats, file sharing, document collaboration, and so forth) under a single, unified umbrella, namely, the World Wide Web.
  • March 1977 A.D. (33 years ago as of 2010): USA companies debut their Commodore PET, Apple II, and Tandy TRS-80 microcomputers.
  • November 1985 A.D. (25 years ago as of 2010): Microsoft Corporation (MFST) launches the Windows operating system for IBM and IBM-compatible microcomputers to replace the Microsoft Disk Operating System called MS-DOS. Many companion software applications later would be built around the Windows/Intel ecosystem, which made the microcomputer diverse, easy, and fun to use.
  • December 1990 A.D. (20 years ago as of 2010): United Kingdom engineer and computer scientist Timothy Berners-Lee successfully tests the World Wide Web software interface for navigating the Internet, which he had developed a year earlier in 1989.
  • October 1994 A.D. (16 years ago as of 2010): USA computer scientist Jim Clark and USA software engineer Marc Andreessen release Mosaic Netscape, the first commercially inspired graphical-based browser for navigating the Internet.
  • September 1998 A.D. (12 years ago as of 2010): USA computer scientists Larry Page and Sergey Brin launch Google.com with its goal of organizing the world's information and making this information universally accessible and useful to all human beings.
  • January 2001 A.D. (9 years ago as of 2010): USA entrepreneur Jimmy Wales and philosopher Lawrence Sanger launch wikipedia.com with its goal of containing the sum of all human knowledge on Earth.
  • September 2004 A.D. (6 years ago as of 2010): United Kingdom entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson, USA entrepreneur and Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and USA engineer Burt Rutan join forces to form Virgin Galactic, a commercial space tourism company which, starting in 2012, is expected to usher in a new era in space travel by allowing humans to partially orbit the Earth's thermosphere, experience the effect of zero gravity, and perhaps grab a peek at other orbiting satellites.
  • June 2007 A.D. (3 years ago as of 2010): Apple Corporation (AAPL) launches the iPhone mobile device with many companion software applications built around the iOS ecosystem.
  • April 2008 A.D. (2 years ago as of 2010): Microsoft Corporation (MFST) introduces the large-form-factor Surface personal computing device.
  • May 2009 A.D. (1 year ago as of 2010): Stephen Wolfram, a United Kingdom-born USA physicist, launches Wolframalpha.com with its goal of making all human knowledge computable and accessible to every human being from a single source.
  • October 2009 A.D. (1 year ago as of 2010): Under the guidance of philosopher Lawrence Sanger, WatchKnow.org is launched with its goal of offering free online educational material to all youths.
  • April 2010 A.D. (0 years ago as of 2010): Apple Corporation (AAPL) introduces the small-form-factor iPad personal computing device, which, among other things, offers a bridge to Apple's education-based iTunes University.
  • January 1, 2012 A.D. (-2 years from now as of 2010): Proposed date for the Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens to begin on Earth.
  • January 1, 6000 A.D. (-3,990 years into the future as of 2010): The Earth is no longer the limit, which is the significance of the escape-velocity formula on the book's front cover. Humans are expected to be living in deep space by the year 6000 with the ultimate goal of one day meeting and living among space aliens.

...When one considers that the Universe has existed, on average, for 15 billion years, clearly, up to 200,000-year-old human beings remain in their infancy stage of development. Barring their sudden, unforeseen, unexpected, intentional, or catastrophic extinction, thousands, and perhaps even millions, of years of life lie ahead for the species Homo sapiens sapiens (very wise human beings). What better time is it to start living an Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens than right now? Why wait until, say, 5,000; 10,000; 100,000; or 1,000,000 years into the future to attain an Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens when humans can have it right now starting in 2012? Why should humans wait for God to do for them what they can do for themselves, which is to convert Earth into some sort of Paradise or Heaven?

As of 2010, the average span of life for the human organism is a mere 75 or so years. From the perspective of cosmic time, the human life span is equivalent to the blink of an eye. Why must humans spend their few, brief moments (or 75 years of life) on this glorious blue-green planet known as Earth devoted to activities such as fighting, killing, pillaging, destroying, self-destruction, and so forth?



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