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The purpose of this page is to take an inventory of humankind's nuclear technology. On this page, humankind's nuclear technology is divided into three types:

  1. Nuclear Research
  2. Nuclear Energy
  3. Nuclear Bombs

Columns A, B, and C in the table below depict countries that possess a (or some) nuclear research reactor(s). Columns E, F, and G depict countries that possess a (or some) nuclear energy-generation plant(s). Columns I, J, and K depict countries that possess nuclear bombs.

Earth's Nuclear State of Affairs as of 2013
Total of 55 Countries with Nuclear Research Reactors   Total of 31 Countries with Nuclear Energy   Total of 9 Countries with Nuclear Bombs    
Research Country Count Country Number of Operable Nuclear Research Reactors   Energy Country Count Country Number of Operable Nuclear Energy Reactors   Bombs Country Count Country Year Nuclear Bomb First Tested   Country Frequency
1 Algeria 2                   1
2 Argentina 5   1 Argentina 2           2
        2 Armenia 1           1
3 Australia 1                   1
4 Austria 1                   1
5 Bangladesh 1                   1
6 Belarus 3                   1
7 Belgium 2   3 Belgium 7           2
8 Brazil 4   4 Brazil 2           2
        5 Bulgaria 2           1
9 Canada 7   6 Canada 19           2
10 Chile 1                   1
11 China 15   7 China 17   1 China 1964   3
12 Czech Republic 3   8 Czech Republic 6           2
13 Dem. P.R. of Korea 1           2 Dem. P.R. of Korea 2006   2
14 Egypt 1                   1
15 Finland 1   9 Finland 4           2
16 France 10   10 France 58   3 France 1960   3
17 Germany 8   11 Germany 9           2
18 Ghana 1                   1
19 Greece 1                   1
20 Hungary 2   12 Hungary 4           2
21 India 4   13 India 20   4 India 1974   3
22 Indonesia 2                   1
23 Iran, Islamic Republic of 4   14 Iran, Islamic Republic of 1           2
24 Israel 2           5 Israel nil   2
25 Italy 5                   1
26 Jamaica 1                   1
27 Japan 8   15 Japan 50           2
28 Jordan 1                   1
29 Kazakhstan 4                   1
30 Korea, Republic of 2   16 Korea, Republic of 23           2
31 Malaysia 1                   1
32 Mexico 3   17 Mexico 2           2
33 Morocco 1                   1
34 Netherlands 3   18 Netherlands 1           2
35 Nigeria 1                   1
36 Norway 2                   1
37 Pakistan 2   19 Pakistan 3   6 Pakistan 1998   3
38 Peru 2                   1
39 Poland 1                   1
40 Portugal 1                   1
41 Romania 2   20 Romania 2           2
42 Russian Federation 65   21 Russian Federation 33   7 Russian Federation 1949   3
43 Serbia 1                   1
        22 Slovakia 4           1
44 Slovenia 1   23 Slovenia 1           2
45 South Africa 1   24 South Africa 2           2
        25 Spain 7           1
        26 Sweden 10           1
46 Switzerland 3   27 Switzerland 5           2
47 Syrian Arab Republic 1                   1
48 Taiwan, China 1   28 Taiwan, China 6           2
49 Thailand 1                   1
50 Turkey 1                   1
51 Ukraine 3   29 Ukraine 15           2
52 United Kingdom 1   30 United Kingdom 16   8 United Kingdom 1952   3
53 United States of America 42   31 United States of America 100   9 United States of America 1945   3
54 Uzbekistan 2                   1
55 Vietnam 1                   1
Grand Total 55 246     31 432     9      
Research Country Count Country Number of Operable Nuclear Research Reactors   Energy Country Count Country Number of Operable Nuclear Energy Reactors   Bombs Country Count Country Year Nuclear Bomb First Tested   Country Frequency
RRDB [Research Reactors Database] Search
World Nuclear Power Reactors | Uranium Requirements | Future Nuclear Power
Nuclear Proliferation Safeguards

Perhaps one of the most telling observations to be gleaned from the above table is this: As of 2013, there were 55 countries that possessed a (or some) operable nuclear research reactor(s). There were 31 countries that possessed a (or some) operable nuclear energy-generation plant(s). There were 9 countries that possessed some operable nuclear bombs.


Although more countries possess nuclear research reactors than any other type of nuclear technology, there actually are fewer operable nuclear research reactors than there are operable nuclear energy-generation reactors. Nuclear research reactors primarily are used for educational purposes. They primarily are used to study the atom. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and as indicated in the table above, as of 2013, there were 246 operable nuclear research reactors in existence. Again, these 246 operable nuclear research reactors spanned 55 countries [when Taiwan is counted separately from China].


The most common types of nuclear reactors on Earth are the ones used in nuclear power plants to generate energy. Nuclear energy-generation reactors are used to generate electrical power for use by households, governments, organizations, and businesses. According to the IAEA, as of 2013, there were 432 operable nuclear energy-generation reactors in existence. Again, these 432 nuclear energy-generation reactors spanned 31 countries [when Taiwan is counted separately from China].

On the one hand, proponents of energy generation via nuclear power plants argue that it is a clean energy source. Proponents of nuclear energy argue that nuclear power plants are the only viable clean-energy source currently in existence that is capable of supplying the energy needs of billions of humans.

On the other hand, opponents of nuclear energy point to the following drawbacks or risks associated with nuclear power plants:

  1. Safe transport and storage of nuclear waste materials. These nuclear waste materials will only keep accumulating and proliferating across Earth as long as nuclear power plants continue to operate and as more nuclear power plants are constructed.
  2. The potential for a major nuclear accident resulting in the release of deadly nuclear radiation into a major population center. The potential for a nuclear power plant catastrophe becomes all the more real in a world with both natural disasters and terror warfare tactics seemingly on the rise.
  3. Nuclear energy technology provides a viable path that could lead to the development and proliferation of nuclear bombs [and nuclear research technology, too, provides a similar path].

Do the benefits of nuclear energy outweigh the risks? Time will tell.

Watch (Where in the World Is Nuclear Power?)

Watch (Top 10: Countries with the Most Nuclear Reactors)

Watch (What Are the Benefits and Risks of Nuclear Power?)

Watch (How Are Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Related?)


As of 2013, nine countries were known to possess nuclear bombs. Much like the case with nuclear reactors, it varies from country to country the total number of nuclear bombs possessed by each country. Some of these nine countries only possess a dozen or so nuclear bombs, and others possess hundreds and even thousands of nuclear bombs.

Watch (BBC News Which Countries Have Nuclear Weapons)

When the nuclear bomb inventory of all nine countries are tallied together, it is estimated that there are about 17,000 nuclear bombs in existence on Earth.

Except the USA's actual use of nuclear bombs in its war with Japan during World War II and the resultant devastating effects that those two nuclear bombs had on human life, over a thousand nuclear bomb tests already have been conducted on Earth since 1945 with seemingly little to no ill effects for life on Earth. A question commonly asked is this: How many nuclear bombs would it take to destroy life on Earth? The prevailing scientific view is this: Even if all of the nuclear bombs per se did not succeed in destroying life on Earth, then the fallout, aftermath, or so-called "nuclear winter" scenario likely would lead to doom for life on Earth (in its current form). I, for one, do not think that humans ever should put this nuclear debate to a test.

Watch (Nuclear Bomb Test Compilation)

Watch (Effects of a Nuclear Bomb 2013)

Watch (Nuclear Famine)

Watch (History of War: Fahrenheit)


Because an all-out use of nuclear bombs might lead to the annihilation of the human species and possibly might lead to the extinction of all life on Earth, any option to resolving international conflicts is preferable to the options of engaging in chemical, biological, and nuclear warfare. Because nuclear warfare could lead to an end of the world in its current form, a movement has emerged to prevent the spread or proliferation of nuclear weapons. Yet, some countries that do not possess nuclear bombs sometimes look upon this movement with a healthy dose of skepticism albeit most have committed not to pursue nuclear weapons. Some countries without nuclear weapons make the following point: If nuclear bombs are as horrible for life on Earth as they are made out to be, then why aren't the countries with nuclear bombs racing to get rid of their stocks of nuclear bombs. Could it be that they are not racing to get rid of their nuclear bombs because humans are bloodthirsty creatures? Could it be that they are not racing to get rid of their nuclear bombs because humans are not content unless they are spilling some blood? So it seems. I'll tell you something. Sometimes it seems like getting the nuclear powers to give up their nuclear bombs is equivalent to trying to take candy from a baby. In many respect, the same taking-candy-from-a-baby syndrome also applies to individual members of society and guns. Much like the case of governments with nuclear bombs on a macro level, on a micro level, some gun owners are fully aware of the power of guns to cause mayhem, intimidation, and death on a major scale. These gun owners do not wish to give up the power over life and death that a gun places in their hands. The power of the gun can be mesmerizing and intoxicating for some.

It reduces to the "action speaks louder than words" argument. To put it another way, the argument is this: If the countries that possess nuclear bombs are serious about non-proliferation, then they should be leading the way by engaging in ongoing and concrete disarmament deeds instead of engaging in a lot of non-proliferation talk.

Watch (Negev Nuclear Research Center: Israel)

Watch (Natanz Enrichment Complex: Iran)

Watch (Which Countries Have Nuclear Weapons?)

Watch (Mohamed ElBaradei at CFR: A World Free of Nuclear Weapons)

Watch (Nuclear Tipping Point)


It's time to take a break from the nuclear warfare doomsday abyss. In an often repeated quote from William Congreve's The Mourning Bride, it's been said that "music has charms to soothe a savage breast" [beast]. In the spirit of William Congreve's quotation, I wish to close this page with a dose of soothing music while reflecting on the human potential for progress rather than focusing on human self-destruction.

Barry White - "Mellow Mood, Part I"

Barry White and the Love Unlimited Orchestra - "Rhapsody in White"

Watch (Herbie Hancock & Lang Lang, Rhapsody in Blue)

Stevie Wonder - "Send One Your Love (Instrumental)"

Branford Marsalis - "The Ruby And The Pearl"

Watch (Vangelis, Chromatique)

Watch (Late Night Alumni, Beautiful)

Grover Washington, Jr. - "A Secret Place"

Hubert Laws - "Life Cycles"

Watch (Kenny G, Songbird)

Watch (Miles Davis, Human Nature)

Watch (Jeff Kashiwa, Hyde Park)

Ronny Jordan - "After Hours"

Greg Adams - "Smooth Operator"

Candy Dulfer and Dave Stewart - "Lily Was Here"

Watch (Chris Botti featuring Lucia Micarelli, Emmanuel)

Hubert Laws (Gabriel Faure) - "Pavane"

Watch [Will Downing featuring Gerald Albright, Stop, Look, Listen (To Your Heart)]

Muse - "Exogenesis: Symphony Part 1 (Overture)"

Lonnie Liston Smith & The Cosmic Echoes - "Floating Through Space"

Bennie Maupin - "Quasar"

Watch (Matt Darey Presents Urban Astronauts featuring Kate Smith, See The Sun)

Watch [London Symphony Orchestra (Johann Pachelbel), Canon A 3 On A Ground In D]

Hiroshima - "Thousand Cranes"

Watch (Barry White and the Love Unlimited Orchestra, Love's Theme)

Stevie Wonder - "Seasons"

Stevie Wonder featuring Syreeta Wright - "Come Back As A Flower"

Stevie Wonder - "Tree"

Stevie Wonder - "Moon Blue"

Barry White - "Mellow Mood, Part II"


By turning swords into ploughshares, the human potential for progressive and praiseworthy accomplishments becomes boundless. Deserts can be made to bloom, and humans, one day, could sail across the deep void of intergalactic space. It would be beyond tragic if, in the blink of an eye, the human potential disappeared forever into a puff of nuclear smoke induced by some geopolitical dispute or another between two countries. The irony is this: The dispute sometimes is over something so simple and insignificant as a practically worthless small piece of land. Wouldn't it be stupid to destroy life on Earth over a worthless small piece of land? Yet, these simple disputes between countries do sometimes spiral out of control. If humans destroy themselves, then humans will have betrayed their Homo sapiens sapiens designation.

Watch (Incredible Singing Android! HRP_4C Humanoid Robot : DigInfo)

Watch (Orba Squara, Perfect Timing)

Watch (QtStudios, The Flying Bus)

Watch (Newton, Nachiketa)

Watch (will.i.am featuring Justin Bieber, #thatPOWER)

Generally speaking, I think that human beings tend to put much too much emphasis on the us-versus-them angle in life. This preoccupation with the racial, religious, cultural, ideological, and international divide has diverted an enormous reservoir of human energy, talent, and attention away from more constructive pursuits. This preoccupation with us-versus-them equates to humans lost in the weeds of what Stevie Wonder refers to as the "Pastime Paradise." To put it another way, humans seem to be experiencing great difficulty in seeing the forest for the trees. Humans do not seem to see the big picture.

The big picture is this: As far as humans know, Earth is the crown jewel of the Universe. Earth lies anchored or tethered to its mothership, the Sun. Earth's uniqueness in the Solar System is its bountifulness or its overabundance of life. Despite their racial, religious, cultural, ideological, and international differences (hence, the trees), all humans are one species here on Earth (hence, the forest). Humans are stuck together here on planet Earth (hence, the forest) essentially in the middle of nowhere except being tucked away in some nondescript corner of the Milky Way galaxy while the Milky Way galaxy floats outward into the vast reaches of space and time. One another is about the only thing that humans have on planet Earth with certainty—and humans also have, as companions, the other life forms with whom humans share the Earth. United in peace, the human species will thrive and perhaps achieve greatness in life (like attaining Heaven on Earth). Divided in hatred, the human species will fall and perhaps become extinct (which would be likened to attaining Hell on Earth). These diametrically opposing futures or destinies for humankind go to the very essence or heart of the book The Age of Homo Sapiens Sapiens: Heaven or Hell.

Watch (The Known Universe by AMNH)

Watch (Greatest Places on Earth - IMAX Documentary)

UNESCO World Heritage Centre - World Heritage List

Watch (Lonnie Liston Smith, Expansions)

Watch (Our Story in 1 Minute)

In their quest for survival, humans always should strive for self-improvement and progress, not self-destruction and regression. Humans should strive to achieve civility on Earth (that is, respect for self, respect for others, respect for the property of others, respect for human life, and respect for the rule of just law). Humans should strive to elevate their conduct to the highest ethical plane. Humans should strive to live in peace and prosperity on Earth.

It is all too easy for a country to become blinded by the domination-subjugation-humiliation syndrome. The domination-subjugation-humiliation model of national power may have worked well during the Ages of the Empires and during the times of colonialism. One of the most important lessons to be learned from USA slavery (1625 - 1863) is that, in terms of peace on Earth and human survival, these archaic approaches to existence have no role to play in contemporary, 21st century life on Earth (and the future). And, yet, the domination-subjugation-humiliation syndrome is alive and well this very day as of 2013. There exists a new form of slavery more commonly referred to as the trafficking and sexual exploitation of women all over the world for profit against the free will of women (as contrasted to a voluntary union of consenting adults, or as contrasted to consenting adults, on their own volitions, engaging in certain sexual activities). At the same time, it is worth noting that the plethora or overabundance of adult websites also indicates that some women voluntarily choose to participate in the often lucrative sex-for-profit business.

Will humans be good to one another while simultaneously taking good care of their Mother, the Earth? Will it continue to be business as usual on Earth? Have humans learned anything from past history? Father Time will tell.

Watch (Vangelis featuring Vana Veroutis and the English Chamber Choir, 12 O'Clock)

Watch (Lloyd Brown, Omar's Cover of Stevie Wonder's Feeding Off The Love Of The Land)

Additional Links for Nuclear Technology and the Nuclear Threat:
  1. Nuclear Research Reactors
  2. RRDB [Research Reactors Database] Search
  3. PRIS [Power Reactor Information System] - Reactor Status Reports - Operational & Long-Term Shutdown - By Country
  4. A Timeline of Conflict, Culture, and Change | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
  5. The Growing Nuclear Club - Council on Foreign Relations
  6. Nuclear Proliferation Case Studies
  7. Climatic Consequences of Nuclear Conflict



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